Global Studies: Middle East Unit Review 2017-18

Review material for the Global Studies Middle East test
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Jerusalem
city in the Middle East that is considered holy by three world religions
Second War-War of 1967
Israelis call it the Six Day War and Palestinians call it the Set Back. As a result of this war, Israel gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and the West Bank
Islam
Arabic word for "submission to God." It is the most common religion in the Middle East.
Intifada
Islamic word for "resurgence" or "throwing off"; used to describe the Palestinian uprising in the occupied territories. In response to the uprising Israelis used rubber bullets, tear gas, and bulldozers.
Rosh Hashanah
the Jewish New Year
Concessions
special permission, rights or privileges to find, drill for, extract and then sell oil from the Middle East. The originally favored European companies.
Royalties
a portion of the profits from developing and drilling for oil in the Middle East that were given to countries that gave foreign oil companies permission to find, drill for, and produce oil. Some Middle East countries received royalties in exchange for special rights and privileges to the oil.
Judaism
the Hebrew religion; also the first monotheistic religion
O.P.E.C.
known as the oil cartel because they control the price of most of the world's oil by controlling the amount of oil that is produced
Hamas
the Islamic Resistance Movement GROUP pushing for a separate Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel
Camp David Accords
signed in the late 1970's by Menachim Begin (Israel) and Anwar Sadat (Egypt); Israel agreed to give SOME of the land it gained in the Six Day War of 1967 back to Egypt and Egypt agreed to recognize Israel's right to exist as a country
Shiites and Sunnis
the two sects of Islam;
Ramadan
Islamic month during which Muslims fast from sunup to sundown
Terrorist organization strategies
typically commit acts of violence in public areas, hoping to create fear among people in the area and gain publicity for their cause. ISIS uses social media to attract foreigners to join the cause, kidnapping, torture, public beheadings, rape, theft to name a few.
Middle East strategic importance
an important player in international politics because it's countries are strategically located between 3 continents, have a wealth of natural resources (oil), control vital waterways and trade routes, and contains holy land for three main religions
Oslo Accords
signed in 1993 by Palestine and Israel; Israel agreed to give the Palestinians limited self-rule in the Gaza Strip and parts of the West Bank & Palestinians promised to stop using terrorism against the Israelis to achieve their goals
Scarcity of water
the Middle Eastern geographic feature that is mostly responsible for the population distribution
Monotheism
the belief in one God and one of the common elements in the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Sects
different branches of a particular religion that sometimes run into conflict over the religion's beliefs and practices
Kosher
a Jewish law the prescribes how food is to be prepared and cooked
Land now known as Israel
created after World War II and quickly became a center of conflict. Jews believe they were there first and should have rights to the land. They want to reclaim the land promised to Abraham by God and create an independent state. Palestinians settled the land after Jews left and believe that they should not have to leave. Both groups claim that their ancestors have lived there.
Third War- War of 1973
Israelis call this the Yom Kippur War and Palestinians call this the Ramadan War. Arab countries launched a surprise attack on Israel to reclaim land lost in 1967 - Israel defeated Arab armed forces in this conflict largely due to support by the United States
Mecca
city in Saudi Arabia where Muslims are to make a pilgrimage to once in their lifetime, known as the Hajj
Rabbi
Jewish religious leader - means "teacher"
Allah
Arabic term for "God"
Yassir Arafat
Palestinian statesman who was chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
2nd Intifada
Israeli Prime Minister visited the Dome of the Rock and claimed it as Israeli territory; as a result, the Palestinians led suicide bombing attacks to which the Israelis built a security fence/wall around the West Bank
Response to terrorist activities
countries cooperate to prevent terrorism and punish captured terrorists, prosecute the terrorists, and impose political and economic sanctions against countries that support terrorism
Oil wealth
typically, a country's gross domestic product (GDP) increases as this increases; exception to this is Israel (They have a high GDP, but do not have a lot of oil)
Koran/Qu'ran
name of the Islamic holy book; contains the messages God sent to the prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel
Five Pillars
the main teachings of Islam: The first is a public declaration of their faith; The second is Prayer-Muslims must pray five times a day in the direction of Mecca; The third is giving to charity - it is the duty of all Muslims to give part of their wealth to the poor; The fourth is fasting during the month of Ramadan; and the Fifth is a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca
Muhammad
founder and prophet of Islam
Mosque
Islamic place of worship
Imam
Islamic prayer/religious leader
Halal/Haram
Islamic dietary laws - Halal foods are food prepared according to Islamic law and Haram are foods that are NOT prepared according to Islamic law and therefore not permissible. Muslims are not allowed to eat pork, drink alcohol, or gamble.
Hebrews
ethnic group of people among whom Judaism developed
Torah
Jewish holy book
Sabbath for each religion
set aside as a day of rest and religious prayer for Jews - begins on Friday at sunset and ends on Saturday at sunset; for Christians on Sunday; for Muslims on Friday
Zionism
movement of Jews to re-establish a separate Jewish homeland/country in Palestine
Ordained ministry
practice in Christianity whereby individuals are set apart and given special authority by the church to be religious leaders and perform religious rites and ceremonies
Arabs
majority ethnic group found throughout the Middle East
U.N. Partition Plan
plan proposed by the United Nations in 1947 to divide Palestine fairly between Arab Palestinians and Zionists based on population. Arabs were not happy with this agreement because they would be losing half of their land.
Nationalize
to have the government take over control. For example, Iran nationalized its oil after frustration with poorly negotiated concessions with European companies
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
organization that was formed in the 1960s by Yassir Arafat to end Israeli occupation and help Palestinians establish an independent Palestinian country by using violence if necessary
Jewish settlers
Jews who intentionally set up settlements/homes in Palestinian areas of the West Bank because: 1. they believe this land to be the land promised to them by God; 2. it might prevent the Israeli government from giving the land away to Palestinians in the future; 3. the Israeli government gives them financial incentives to live there
Anwar Sadat
president of Egypt who signed the historic Camp David Accords with Israel - was later assassinated by an Arab extremist who viewed Sadat as a traitor to Arabs
Yitzhak Rabin
prime minister of Israel who signed the historic Oslo Accords with PLO leader Yassir Arafat - believer in the philosophy of "Land for Peace" - was later assassinated by a Jewish extremist who viewed Rabin as a traitor
Benjamin Netanyahu
current prime minister of Israel - member of the Likud Party - believer in the philosophy of "Peace through Strength"
Mahmoud Abbas
current leader of the Palestinian National Authority
"Oil Weapon"
strategy of Arab OPEC member nations in the 1970s to use oil as an economic weapon by launching an oil embargo on the United States because of its support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War
Embargo
restriction on trade between countries. For example, in 1973 O.P.E.C. countries refused to trade oil to the United States because of their involvement in the Middle East.
ISIS
acronym for the "Islamic State of Iraq and Syria" - group that is currently terrorizing many sections of the Middle East in order to establish a larger Islamic country throughout the Middle East that will be governed by STRICT Islamic law (Sharia law).
West Bank barrier wall
wall built by the Israelis in response to terror attacks by Palestinians from the West Bank
Martyr
celebration of death for a cause; in the Middle East this is known of young Palestinians
Refugee
someone who flees their home country because of persecution
Desalination
the removal of salt from water; a possible solution for water scarcity in the Middle East
Geographic regions in the Middle East
Arabian Peninsula, Fertile Crescent, Nile River, Norther Tier, Maghreb
Arabic
majority language spoken in the Middle East
Abraham
Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believe that they descended from this person. Jews and Christians believe they descend from Abraham's son Issac. Muslims believe they descend from Abraham's son Ishmael.
Yom Kippur
The most important Jewish holiday known as the "Day of Atonement" where Jews are sorry for their sins.
Jesus
prophet and messiah for Christians
Moses
prophet for Jews. Jews believe the messiah is still coming.
Religious head coverings
Kippah- worn by some Jews to remind him/her that they are beneath god.
Hijab- worn by some Muslim women in public as a sign of modesty
Western Wall
holiest site for Jews; remaining part of their sacred Temple
Dome of the Rock
third holiest site for Muslims; believed to be where Muhammad went to the promised land
Diaspora
scattering of Jews; movement of people from their homeland
First War- War of 1948
Israelis call it the War of Independence and the Palestinians call it the Catastrophe. Arabs attacked the newly formed Israel and lost their land in this war.
Middle East economic dependence
petroleum; oil
Saudi Arabia
world's largest producer of oil; located in the Middle East
Theocracy
type of government where rules are based on religion; current government of Iran is based on rules of Islam
Benefits for oil-producing states in the Middle East
high export earnings and job opportunities
Benefits for non-oil producing states in the Middle East
citizens moved to oil-producing states for jobs; as guest workers they sent their money home which boosted their own economy; received foreign aid from oil-producing neighbors
Benefits of oil wealth in the Middle East
social achievements, such as reduced infant mortality, increased life expectancy, increased school enrollment, increased adult literacy
Consequences of a growing population in the Middle East
stress on resources, such as clean water, food, medicine, education; strains on the economy, such as enough jobs to absorb the growing labor supply
Impacts of future economic growth in the Middle East
high population growth and fluctuations (ups and downs) in oil prices; the economy relies on one natural resource (oil) therefore new areas will need to be developed, such as banking, tourism, light manufacturing, or agriculture.
Synagogue
Jewish place of worship
Bible
Christian holy book
Church
Christian place of worship
Ethnocentrism
belief in one's own group/culture being superior; tendency to view others from the perspective of one's own culture
Palestinian National Authority (PNA)
established as a result of the Oslo Accords, it is the name of the current Palestinian government set up to govern the Gaza Strip and Palestinian areas of the West Bank often known as the Occupied Territory
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