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Anatomy Final Review
endocrine, digestive, reproductive
Terms in this set (57)
Where is amylase released from? What does it break down?
parotid glands; starches
What are the organs of the alimentary canal?
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, anal canal
What are the accessory organs of digestive system?
liver, pancreas, salivary glands, gallbladder
What are the parts of the small intestines?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the parts of the large intestines?
cecum, colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid), rectum, anal canal
What are villi and what do they do?
fingerlike projections in small intestine wall; increase surface area for absorption of digestive particles
What is the uvula and what does it do?
dangling ball in back of throat; seals of nasal cavity when swallow
What is bile secreted from and what path does it take?
liver; enters common hepatic duct - common bile duct - pancreatic duct - duodenum at hepatopancreatic sphincter
What is the purpose of bile?
to emulsify fats (break large lipid molecules into pieces to increase surface area for enzymes to attach)
What is a bolus?
ball of food rolled by tongue
What is chyme?
food processed in stomach and formed into a digested viscous material
What is the name of the sphincter between the esophagus and stomach?
lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter
What is the name of the sphincter between the stomach and small intestine?
What is the name of the sphincter between the small intestine and large intestine?
What is contained in pancreatic juice?
enzymes, ions and water in alkaline fluid (bicarbonate ions)
What are included in pancreatic enzymes?
amylase, lipids, proteases, trypsin, carboxytrypsin, peptidases, nucleases
What is the name of the sphincter between the liver and the duodenum?
What are the names of the sphincters at end of digestive tract?
internal and external anal sphincters
What are the three types of cells in stomach? What does each secrete?
mucous or goblet cells - mucous, a viscous alkaline secretion
chief cells - digestive enzyme pepsinogen which is precursor to pepsin
parietal cells - hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
What is the primary female sex organ?
What two parts make up the ovary?
inner medulla and outer cortex
What is the primary male sex organ?
What does the testes contain?
What is the name of the innermost layer of uterine wall?
What are coils in the testes where sperm is produced?
What is the urethra?
transports urine to outside of body
What is a sex hormone released in males that increases the number of RBC's?
What hormone is released from the ovaries, promotes changes in the uterus during the reproductive cycle, affects mammary glands, and helps regulate pituitary's release of gonadotropins?
What hormone is released from the ovaries, stimulates enlargement of accessory organs, and develops and maintians female secondary sex characteristics?
What do the seminal vesicles secrete?
alkaline fluid, fructose, and prostaglandins (stimulate female muscle contraction)
What are two other names for uterine tubes?
fallopian tubes and oviducts
What type of tissue makes up uterine tubes and what is in this tissue?
simple columnar epithelium; cilia that beats toward uterus and helps transport egg cell down tube
What is a primordial follicle?
woman born with it and eventually goes through meiotic division and one become an egg released during ovulation each month
What is the cervix?
what dilates during childbirth
What is the vas deferens?
tube that joins with ejaculatory duct and pases through prostate and empties into urethra
What does the prostate gland secrete?
thin milky fluid with alkaline pH that enhances motility of sperm
Where are epinephrine and norepinephrine released from and what do they cause? What triggers release?
adrenal medulla; fight or flight response; increased heart rate, dilate blood vessels; nervous system trigger
What are aldosterone and cortisol released from and what triggers them?
adrenal cortex; pituitary gland trigger
What does aldosterone do?
helps regulate concentration of mineral electrolytes
What does cortisol do?
affects glucose metabolism; influences fat and protein metabolism; helps regulate long term stress
Another name for T4
Another name for T3
Where are T3 and T4 released from? What triggers release? What is affect of these hormones?
thyroid gland; TSH being released from anterior pituitary; glucose metabolism
Where is ACTH released from and what is its target cells?
anterior pituitary; adrenal cortex
Where is GH released from and what is target cells?
anterior pituitary; liver, adipose and bone tissue
Where is ADH released from and what is target cells? What does it cause?
posterior pituitary; kidney; conserve body water
Where is oxytocin released form and what is target cells? What does it cause?
posterior pituitary; ovary and testis; milk ejection and uterine contractions
Where are follicular cells located? What are the cavities filled with? What hormones do they secrete? What is needed for this to happen?
thyroid gland; colloid; T3 and T4; iodine
Where are extrafollicular cells located? What are other names for this? What hormone doe they secrete? What does this hormone do?
thyroid gland; c-cells or parafollicular cells; calcitonin; decreases amount of blood calcium
Where is parathyroid located? What does it connect to? What does it release? What does this hormone do?
back of thyroid; extrafollicular cells; PTH; increases amount of blood calcium
Where are insulin and glucagon released from?
What does insulin do?
decrease blood sugar concentration; forms glycogen from glucose
What does glucagon do?
increases blood sugar concentration; breaks down glycogen into glucose
What are the anterior pituitary hormones?
GH, Prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
Are hormones produced or stored in anterior pituitary?
What are the posterior pituitary hormones?
ADH and oxytocin
Are hormones produced or stored in posterior pituitary?
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