105 terms

Beekeeping Exam 3

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honey robbing in 18th century Germany
forest beekeepers would harvest honey through doors cut in the back of the tree
bee traps
-made of deer or other horn
-capture one or a couple of bees and close the door
-release bees one at a time and follow them home
honeyguides
-a small old world family of birds with 15 species in Africa and 2 in Asia
-related to woodpeckers
-diet consists on insects, honey, and beeswax
honeyguides & honey-badgers
-honeyguides lead other animals to bee nests
-the birds have adapted to lead honey-badgers to bee nests and eat the leftovers
Greater honeyguide
one species known to guide humans to bee nests in sub-Saharan Africa
ancient beekeeping
smoke, dust, or honey-water was used to pacify the bees, while burning cow dung was used to harvest honey
independent rise and spread of apiculture worldwide
-active beekeeping arose throughout the world and was spread by interacting cultures
clay or log hives
-simple fixed comb hives
-earthenware jars or hallowed tree trunks
-often had "backdoors" to harvest honey combs
gum hives
-types of upright log hives
-usually had a "roof" and internal support structures
-popular up into the 20th century
box hives
-very simple shelters with no internal support for combs
-less primitive, but still fixed comb hives
skep hives
-typically made from straw with support sticks to hold the combs
-inspected from the open bottom
-harvested honey by killing the colony
top-bar hives
-the first moveable comb hive
-wood slats places on top of a wicker basket or clay pot
-bees build comb on the slats which can then be removed
leaf hives
-invented in Switzerland in 1789 by Francis Huber
-combs examined like pages in a book
-first moveable frame hive ever invented
modern beekeeping
honey bee management since 1851
Rev. Lorenzo Langstroth
description and sketches f the importance of the "bee space" which transformed beekeeping
fixed-comb hives
-no longer legal to keep keeps in fixed comb hives
-department of agriculture apiary inspectors need to look at combs to diagnose disease and take actions if necessary to prevent disease outbreaks
wax foundation
-John Mehring pressed wax between two engraved wood planks to create the first wax foundation
-J.F. Hetherington added wire for structural support
bellowed smoker
-Moses Quinby, an American beekeeper, is the first to attach a bellows to a tin can in 1870
-improved fire longevity and ability to direct smoke onto the bees
radial honey extractor
-invented in 1865 by an Italian beekeeper Major Franz Endler Von Hruschka
-named the "smielatore" or radial extractor to fling the honey from the combs without destroying them
how long have humans been raiding honey bee colonies
at least 10,000 years
what are the four major innovations in beekeeping
the use of...
-bee space
-wax foundation
-bellowed smoker
-radial extractor
bees that lived in clefts of rocks or in caves were considered as intimately connected with, if not actually embodying, the souls of the dead
wild nests were often thought to be entrances to the underground world of dead spirits and the afterlife
Zeus
king of the greek gods
birth of Zeus
-Kronos, first king of gods, ate his children to protect his throne
-His wife, Rhea, hide Zeus in a cave on Mount Dicte
-When Zeus grew up he got Kronos drunk with mead and made him throw up all of his siblings
Melissae
-on Mount Dicte, baby Zeus was cared for by a sacred goat and sacred bees, known as the
melissae
story of melissae
-guards stood outside the cave and clanged their spears against their shields whenever Zeus cried so that Kronos would not hear him
-four men clad themselves in armor to enter the cave and steal the honey
-upon seeing Zeus' swaddling, their armor fell off and were attacked by the bees
-Zeus took mercy, though, and turned the men into birds rather than kill them
Dionysus
-the god of mead, wine and the vine
-credited as being the originator of beekeeping and the discoverer of the first "bee tree"
Aristaeus
-the god of bees and honey
-he was raised on ambrosia and taught how to tame bees and keep them in hives
Cupid the honey thief
-Cupid, the god of love, ran to his mother Venus, vainly trying to escape a swarm of bees whose honeycomb he had stolen. In his rush to escape, Cupid dropped his arrows.
-Venus laughs and says: 'Are you not just like the bee-so little yet able to inflict such painful wounds?'
Cerberus
-guard dog of Hades
-honey cakes, part of many Greek rites, were thrown to Cerberus by those who wanted to enter Hades
the ox-born bee
-common belief that bees were spontaneously generated from dead oxen
-thought that "king" bees derived from marrow or brain tissue; "ordinary" bees came from flesh
-believed that wasps and hornets derived from horse carcasses, and beetles from assess!
Tanging
-belief that swarms of bees would settle if a loud noise is made
-practice was commonplace in the British Isles and Roman culture
-no biological basis, but demonstrates the power of correlation
Ancient Egypt - religion
-wall painting from a tomb in Luxor showing an offering to the Pharaoh in 1450 BC
-the dish probably contained honey combs, with two bees feeding on them
Buddhism
-a honey comb being offered to Buddha by a monkey
-bees and honey were also very important in Indian culture and religion
bees in the Koran
-the book of the bee
bees in the Bible
-58 references to honey, mostly "land of milk and honey"
-9 references to honeycomb, 10 references to bees, hornets, or sting
-Myrrh is a red-brown resin from certain trees in Eastern Africa- probably propolis!
-Deborah (Hebrew for "bee") is an Israelite heroine in the Bible
the beehive of the Roman church as portrayed in the 16th century
the Pope as the "king" bee surrounded by his loyal subjects
beeswax candles and the spread of Christianity
...
Saint Ambrose
-patron of bees and beekeeping
-legend has it that when Ambrose was an infant, a swarm of honey bees settled on his cradle where he laid asleep
-the child was not harmed by this event, which was taken as a sign from heaven that this babe would be honey-tongued in all his words, deeds, and writings
bees were seen as a connection to the afterlife and supernatural...
so they played a central role in many folkloric stories and myths
honey is predominant in religious rituals along with oil butter and cheese since these items take effort and are coveted
giving them up is a true and honest sacrifice, demonstrating loyalty and subordination in hopes of receiving special treatment and reciprocity, particularly in the afterlife
Ancient Egypt - art
depreciations of apiculture and political symbols
Ancient Greece - art
depictions of mythology
African art
-watercolor from Africa showing a log hive in the tree
sculptures
-wax statues from Egypt and Australia
-since there were no honey bees in Australia until Europeans settled, they were made from stingless beeswax
Madam Tussaud's wax museum
solely uses beeswax for human subjects, which makes then very life-like
hives as art
-some beehives have been sculpted and painted very ornately
-particularly popular in the middle easy here hives often took the shape of mosques
The Iliad (1000 BC)
-uses many expressions about bees and honey but nothing about bee keeping
Shakespeare
-used the bee to reinforce images of sweetness in Julius Caesar
-used the bee to reinforce images of ubiquity in The Tempest
-also used in Henry V
bees in the Neoclassical Age (1660-1798): the acme of symbolism
-importance of bees to Greeks and Romans made its "rebirth" a natural extension during this period
-symbol of universality, timelessness, unchanging, and eternally important
-symbol of eclecticism and "taste"
-industriousness of the bee praised for its purpose and productivity
-perfect symbol for the Age of Order; inflexible government
Leo Tolstoy: War and Peace (1865-1869)
uses the analogy of a queenless honey bee colony when describing Moscow as the French army approached; "listless, activity without enthusiasm"
Mark Twain: Huck Finn (1884)
Jim told Huck a story about bees
A. A. Milne: Winnie-the-pooh (1926)
Pooh tries to reach a hive in a tree
Arabian Night (800 AD)
-story of a bee which carried crumbs from the Sultan's table to feed a poor blind sparrow
Sue Monk Kidd: The Secret Life of Bees (2002)
-set in 1964 in South
Carolina, tells the story of an
adolescent runaway Lily Owens
-she is befriended by a group of three beekeeping sisters who make "Black Madonna honey"
finish lecture 20 examples!!!
...
bees can be portrayed in many different ways....
from familiar and comforting to dangerous and frightening
bees and beekeeping are full of metaphor....
making them excellent subjects for textural and sensual imagery and political commentary
look through lecture 21
look at his examples of bees in popular culture (movies)
what do inaccuracies about bees lead to?
can lead to pervasive misconceptions about their true behavior
honey bees in popular culture
honey bees can evoke sensuality, humor, fear, and awe in their portrayals in popular culture
are there trade-offs when incorporating bees in popular culture?
there are often trade-offs between biological and factual accuracy about bees with plot intent, budget, and other logistical constraints
Ancient Egypt - warfare/ politics
-symbol of lower Egypt was the bee, upper Egypt the reed; lasted from the 1st Dynasty to the Roman period, almost 4,000 years!
-in 3000 BC, the Egyptians had a government official who was specifically responsible for collecting honey for the pharaoh
Xenophon's march
writes an account of his Greek army, while escaping from Persia, eating honey and getting sick
"mad honey"
nectars in the family Ericaceae produce grayontoxins, which are toxic to humans
-rhododendron flower
-azalea flower
mountain laurel honey
-one of the few "toxic" honeys produces in NC derives from the mountain laurel
-the summer of 2007 saw an unusual amount of laurel-derived honey in the southeast
Seneca and Nero
Seneca, tutor and councilor to Nero, compared the non combative "king" bee to the human monarchy
bees and sieges
-honey bees were very effective weapons in warfare, particularly in sieges of castles or forts
-skeps would be catapulted over the walls and cause mass panic and pain
recesses for skeps built directly in fortification walls were commonplace
indented house-like structure in brick walls
roman warships
roman navy would catapult beehives onto enemy ships to disrupt the crew
Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon's coat of arms and political symbol included bees to signify unity and sacrifice
30 years' war
1618 - 1648
used bees? just a picture on slide
WW1
in Africa, the British Indian Army
was trying to sneak up on an
eastern seaport held by the
Germans when they disturbed
huge hives of aggressive African
bees, which drove them into the sea.
WW2
-rationing of sugar resulted in a huge increase in the domestic use of honey as the main sweetener
-deferment could be attained by
owning 300 hives; 25 hives = 1 cow, owning 12 cows permitted deferment
war-time uses for beeswax during WW2
coating and lubricating shells, waxing fighter planes, waterproofing canvas, waxing cables, dental molds, sun creams, and camouflage
yellow rain during the Vietnam War
a controversial interface among honey bees, warfare, and politics
problems with the government's position - yellow rain
-no munitions ever recovered
-unreliable and unverified witnesses
-samples of yellow rain contained microscopic objects that closely resembled pollen grains
Apis dorsata
the giant honey bee
communal "bee trees"
tree branches that housed many hives
bomb and drug sniffing bees
-bees can detect the target chemicals in the air in concentrations as low as a few parts per trillion
-there are situations in which using bees might be preferable to using dogs
state symbols
-17 of the 33 states with official state insects have named the honey bee as its symbol, including NC!
-before being named Utah, the state tried to name themselves Deseret, which means honey bee
laws
-old law that allowed a father to kill his child unless its eaten milk and honey, honey used to secure the life of babies, carried through to Christian baptism
-There was a law that bees gathering honey from another's farm, the beekeeper owed a small share of the harvest
laws - magic figures
-magic figures were often made of beeswax, younger wax being more effective for bewitching; problem was that wax was often stolen from churches, so clergy passed some laws to prevent and punish the practice
Laws - King Alfred
passed a law that every beekeeper must announce the issue of a swarm by ringing bells or clashing metals so that it might be followed or captured; a continuation of tanging from Romans; probably common in Britain even before Romans
Queen Elizabeth I - "wax law"
passed to prevent impurities being added to the wax trade and pollute houses that burned them in candles
honey bees have been used both directly and indirectly in warfare since ancient times
-directly: as weapons
-indirectly: through poisoned honey
the laws of bee ownership have always remained diffuse and difficult to define in the legal system
why you paid attention - laws
European subspecies
-the first honey bees to be imported to the new world were European honey bees (EHB)
-bees were probably on the Mayflower but didn't survive
African subspecies
-the subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata evolved in sub-Saharan Africa
-the are adapted to tropical habitats
-they were imported to Brazil to improve honey production and the apiculture industry
Brazil's breeding program
-Dr. Warwick Kerr was the geneticist in charge of the Brazilian breeding program
-the inadvertent escape of 26 swarms in 1956 established a new population of Africanized bees (AHB)
spread of the AHB
-within 50 years the AHB colonized most of South America and all of Central America
-it entered the US in 1990 through south Texas
-throughout its range in the New World, the AHB shows a remarkable ability to displace resident EHB colonies
swarming of AHB
-African colonies swarm more often than European colonies, which helps them out compete European colonies
-African colonies are also much
more likely to abscond (abandon a nest site) and migrate during dearth periods
nest usurpation
-AHBs produce parasitic swarms that actively invade EHB colonies
-picture showing a ball of African bees that are surrounding and protecting the queen
parasitic swarms
parasitic swarms invade an EHB nest, replace the European queen, and take over the colony
nesting behaviors
-unlike European bees, which must occupy large well-insulated nest cavities for winter survival, AHB colonies can occupy smaller cavities and are more likely to build exposed-comb nests
-AHB also put more emphasis on brood rearing and much less on honey storage
morphology
-African and European bees look virtually identical
-AHB is slightly smaller than EHB
no difference in sting!
AHB venom is no more potent than it is for the EHB
morphometrics
scientists can carefully measure different body parts to distinguish AHB from EHB
genetic analyses
genetic tests can determine the mother's lineage as either European or African
defensive behavior
-the AHB is most well known for its high degree of nest defense
-about 5 times more African bees defend the colony than European bees in the same time interval
-AHB workers also produce more alarm pheromone than EHB workers
will they ever get to NC?
it is not a question of whether or not the AHB will be introduced to NC, as they almost certainly will be, but a question of whether they will become permanently established
predicted distribution
-early predictions were based largely on temperature gradients and the distribution of A. m. scutellata in its native Africa
-a common assumption is that the AHB cannot survive a prolonged winter, which will slow or prevent its movement into northern states
-at this point, we do not know the extent to which the AHB will spread in the U.S. or how quickly the invasion process will proceed
the relative risk of AHB
only 17 people have died in the US from AHB stings
where did they come from?
bees were imported from Africa to Brazil in the 1950s for a breeding program but they escaped
perception of AHB
the perception of the AHB as "killer" bees is counter to their actual relative risk