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AP European History Chapter 26
Terms in this set (81)
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs. Employed much in the European conquest of Africa.
Sphere of influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities. European powers fought for these in Asia.
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation.
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him.
"Capetown to Cairo"
This was the slogan of Britain's new African policy for uniting their territories.
This country controlled Algiers, Tunisia, West Africa, Congo, and Madagascar
This country controlled Namibia, Togoland, Cameroons, and Tanzania.
Region of Northeast Asia bounded by the Yalu River on the south and the Amur River on the east and north. Russia and Japan dueled over it in the Russo-Japanese war.
Japan and Russia fought over this Chinese area during the Russo-Japanese War. After the Treaty of Portsmouth, it was settled that both factions evacuate, and the region's sovereignty was returned to China.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Three Emperor's League
An alliance between Austria, Russia, and Germany. It fell out several times because Austria and Russia had conflicting interests in the Balkans.
This war had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
Treaty of San Stefano
This was a treaty established after Russia (for Serbia and Montenegro) defeated the Ottoman Empire. This treaty expaned Russia to the Danube River and created Bulgaria as a Russian satellite (this annoyed Great Britian becasuse they sought to expand in that area as well). It was reversed after the Congress of Berlin.
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy. Got its start in England right when it looked like Russia would have the Dardanelles.
Congress of Berlin
(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.
Bismarck referred to himself as this during the Congress of Berlin, and the title was justified; he agreed to congress simply because he wanted to avoid war between Russia and Austria in which he feared Germany would be drawn with nothing to gain and much to lose.
created by Bismarck; contained Austria-Hungary and Germany when Russia left the alliance preceding the Congress of Berlin
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
The purpose of this treaty was because Russia had refused to renew the Alliance of the Three Emperors. Bismarck craftily substituted the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, by which both states promised neutrality if the other was attacked. It was ended in 1890 because the new Emperor William of Germany had dismissed Bismarck because of his friendly policy toward Russia. Then he had refused to renew the treaty.
This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway.
General Leo Caprivi
He was the new chancellor that William II hired once Bismarck was done. Came up with the Schlieffen Plan to fight France.
Period of isolation in GB, where they feel as though they do not need to get involved in the war; Perpetual Neutrality
He was the head of the Boer resistance during the Second Boer War.
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz
(1849-1930) German naval architect who developed the "risk" theory which stated that a German fleet could not defeat the British navy, but weaken it enough to match those of France and the United States.
either of two wars: the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881)
The series of understandings, or agreements, between France and Britian that led to their alliance in World War 1
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
First Moroccan Crisis
German attempt to break up Franco-English alliance by taking Morocco but caused the Russian, French, and English alliance
Prince Bernhard von Bulow
a German statesman who served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909.
International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
Sir Edward Grey
Britain's foreign minister, foresaw the horror ahead; said "The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime."
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
the strait between the Aegean and the Sea of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey. A vital point for Russia, since it is their only naval access to the Mediterranean Sea.
"Little Slavic Brothers"
The term used by Russia to describe its disposition toward its fellow Slavs.
The Second Moroccan Crisis
The international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911. Germany's move was aimed at testing the relationship between Britain and France and possibly intimidate Britain into an alliance with her, as well as enforcing claims for compensation for acceptance of effective French control of the North African kingdom, where France's pre-eminence had been upheld by the 1906 Algeciras Conference following the First Moroccan Crisis a year earlier.
the gunboat sent out by the Germans to the Moroccan port of Agadir to protect the German citizens there
First Balkan War
1912 -Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory--a dispute that led in 1913 to the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
This war was over Albania, a mainly Muslim region in the Adriatic. Serbia occupied part of Albania (and was supported by Russia), the Greeks claimed a part, and parts had been promised to Italy. Austria did not want the Serbs to gain access to the sea, so they too wanted Albania for themselves. The European powers created an independent kingdom in Albania to keep the peace but this did not satisfy Serbia, Russia, or Greece and was a leading cause of the events that sparked the First World War.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary killed by a terrorist from Bosnia who wanted Bosnia to break away from Austria-Hungary to join Serbia. His assassination sparked WWI.
the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Conrad von Hotzendorf
(1852-1925) Chief of the Austrian staffs who argued for an attack on Serbia in response to the assassination plot against Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
Count Stefan Tisza
(1861-1918) Hungarian chief of staff who opposed an attack on Serbia because of the threat of Russian intervention and without a firm commitment from Germany.
Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. He was desperately trying to get Britain to sign a treaty that would end their arms race.
July 28, 1914
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, officially starting the First World War on this date.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Helmuth von Moltke
chief of German general staff. Reduced the strength of attacking forces in the Schlieffen plan instead of being ballsy. Eliminated Netherlands from the invasion plan.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI. A brutal battle of attrition.
determined and organized general. Good reputation. More power once Bethmann-Hollweg was dismissed. Decided on a massive German assault along the Somme river that happened on march 21, 1918.
General Paul von Hindenburg
A German General during the First World War, he was a seasoned veteran and was sent to the Eastern Front, where he won several victories over the Russians. He was seen as the Savior of East Prussia, and became the Chief of Staff of the Army in 1916, and with military support he and Ludendorff formed the Third Supreme Command, a military-industrial dictatorship, which held power until September 1918.
Battle of Tannenberg
Battle between Russia and Germany, one of the first battles of WWI, August 23 - September 2, 1914; Russia badly defeated
(unredeemed Italy) was one reason for the Italian support of the Allies against Austria and Germany during WWI.
General Erich von Falkenhayn
Moltke's successor, he sought success by an attack on the French stronghold of Verdun.
Battle of Verdun
10-month long battle in which over 400,000 Germans were killed trying to overrun French lines. Even more French soldiers were killed. German forces tried to take a French fortress in a battle of attrition but failed.
Led the French army at Verdun and eventually became Commander of the French Armies. He served as Prime Minister in 1940. When German forces defeated France, he took control of the Vichy area in 1942. Because of his cooperation with the Nazis, he was arrested and imprisoned until his death in 1951.
Battle of the Somme
A failed Allied offensive at the Somme River where the soldiers went over the top of the trenches and tried to take to enemy's trench. Not effective and most died.
German submarines, used in WWI to stir hell in the waters of Allied powers.
A British boat carrying some 100 American passengers that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI.
Battle of Jutland
Largest naval battle of WWI. (May-June) Brits vs. Germans off N Great Britain. No clear winner
Headed the Russian Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution. Led the Red Army to destroy the Whites.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Second Battle of the Marne
The first battle that the US participated in overseas. They stopped Germany from taking France, turning point of world war 1
Prince Maximilian of Baden
Germany's last imperial Chancellor prior to the revolution of November 1918, a moderate who eventually approved of the removal of the Kaiser.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Social Democratic Party
leftist leaning party in Germany, not as radical as the communists of Russia, favored "gradual" elimination of captialism not radical overthrow like in Russia
Independent Socialist Party
A radical and revolutionary communist party in Germany.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Vittorio Emmanuele Orlando
Spokesman for Italy at the Paris Conference. He pushed for Italia Irredenta.
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)
led a dangerous communist uprising in Berlin
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
A region that Germany took from France in the Franco-Prussian War. Germany lost it at the end of WWI.
a region in western Germany that is rich in coal... the French throw in the Treaty of Versailles that all coal produced here is the property of France.
Inserted into the Treaty of Versailles, this identified Germany as the chief instigator of the war. This justified huge reparation payments.
a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the second Chancellor of the Wiemar Republic. Frequently pointed out that Germany was doomed thanks to the huge debts it faced by the Allied powers.
The Economic Consequences of the Peace
a book published by John Maynard Keynes. Keynes attended the Versailles Conference as a delegate of the British Treasury and argued for a much more generous peace. It was a best seller throughout the world and was critical in establishing a general opinion that the Versailles Treaty was a "Carthaginian peace". It helped to consolidate American public opinion against the treaty and involvement in the League of Nations.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP European History Chapter 26
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AP European History Chapter 21
AP European History Chapter 23
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