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abu bakr

Companion of 1st Muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful successor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpreter of dreams following Muhammad's death.

ali ibn abi talib

4th Caliph/1st Imam.
He is the son-and-law of Muhammad.
His assassination in 661 marks the end of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the beginning of the Umayyad Dynasty.


influential church father and theologian; Bishop of Hippo; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination

dante alighieri

an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)

thomas aquinas

(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology

peter brueghel

his subjects were everyday life and landscapes; greatest flemish painter of the 16th century; "hunters in the Snow"

augustus caesar

The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace

julius caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

john calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)


king of the franks (768-814) founder of first empire in western Eroupe after the fall of Rome


Roman statesman regarded as a model of simple virtue, a model dictator for the Romans. He organized an army, led the Romans to victory, attended victory celebrations, and returned to his farmland all within 16 days.

Constantine 1

This emperor of the late Roman Empire issued the Edict of Milan allowing for religious freedom, most notably for Christians, and he moved the capital from Rome to the east after reuniting a divided empire.


Byzantine missionary that was sent to Russia to spread Orthodoxy; created Slavic Cyrillic script

albrecht durer

a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)

desiderius erasmus

Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe

genghis khan

Mongolian Emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227)


A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.


a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

roman Catholicism

A branch of Christianity that developed in the western Roman Empire and that recognized the Pope as its supreme head

eastern orthodoxy

Official religion of Russia; rejects the Pope, but is otherwise the same as Roman Catholicism.


people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade

roman legions

The Armies of Rome. Rome's Military was its great strength. They build the Roads and kept the borders of the Empire safe. Loyal to their Generals.

Punic wars

the three wars waged by Rome against Carthage, 264-241, 218-201, and 149-146 b.c., resulting in the destruction of Carthage and the annexation of its territory by Rome.

twelve tables

the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law

old Latin ways


roman empire

an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire

pax romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.


Comprised of many wealthy elite, especially in Jerusalem, they exercised considerable religious and political influence among Jews at the time of Christ.


sect of Jews from Judea consisting of citizens of all classes; liberal and sought to study the applications of Torah to everyday life


sect of Jews of Judea who were uncompromising in their piety and their disgust with what they considered a corrupted priesthood; library is known as the Dead Sea Scrolls


Jews that rose up in armed rebellion against Rome in 66ce; unsuccessful, and Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed

jewish revolt

in 66 BC Jews revolted against Rome 4 years later Rome crushed the rebels, captured Jerusalem, and destroyed the Jewish temple


place of worship consisting of an edifice for the worship of a deity

byzantine empire

(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.


A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul

nika rebellion

in 532, the Blues and the Greens were angry with the government so they rioted in the hippodrome, but Belisarius and his men broke in and slaughtered 30,000 rebels

kievan rus

A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from. The Scandinavians coined the term "Russia". It was greatly influenced by Byzantine


the group of people in southeastern Europe who were the same ethnic group as the Russians


From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)


A personal group of civil servants who arrested boyers and gave their lands to Ivan the Terrible's supporters



golden horde

Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)


Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.


traveling people who lived throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia/Middle East, first followers of Islam


Islam's primary sacred text, regarded by Muslims as the direct words of Allah, revealed to Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel

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