189 terms

Byron Center West Middle School Science Review

Study Review Quizlet Terms for Science 8th grade at Byron Center West Middle School!
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Exponential Growth
Growth of a population in an ideal, unlimited environment, represented by a J-shaped curve when population size is plotted over time.Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Carrying Capacity
The largest population that an area can support.
Abiotic Factor
A nonliving part of an organism's habitat.
Biotic Factor
A living part of an ecosystem.
Limiting Factor
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
Producer
An organism that makes its own food.
Carnivore
Organism that obtains energy by eating animals.
Herbivore
Organism that obtains energy by eating only plants.
Omnivore
Organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals.
Adaptation
Inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Organism
An individual living thing.
Population
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
Community
All the different populations that live together in an area.
Ecosystem
Living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions.
Carbon Cycle
The circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms especially via the process of photosynthesis and respiration.
Primary Succession
An ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed.
Secondary Succession
The series of changes that occur after a disturbance of an existing ecosystem.
Pioneer Species
First species to populate a barren area during succession.
Climax Community
A stable, mature community in a successive series that has reached equilibrium after having evolved through stages and adapted to its environment. The MOST MATURE!
Nitrogen Cycle
The transfer of NITROGEN from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere.
Ectotherm
An animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings. Anything but birds and mammals. Cold blooded.
Endotherm
An animal whose body regulates its own temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces. Animal that generates its own body heat and controls its body temperature from within. Warm blooded.
Eukaryotes
Organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Prokaryotes
A Single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus.
Unicellular
Made of a single cell.
Multicellular
Organisms composed of many cells.
Invertebrate
An animal without a backbone.
Vertebrate
The 26 small bones that make up the backbone. Spine. Having a backbone or spinal column
Heterotrophic
Organisms that are unable to construct their own food from inorganic sources, and therefore must consume other organisms or organic molecules from the outside environment. Function as consumers or decomposers in food chains. OBTAIN THEIR FOOD AND USE ENERGY.
Autotrophic
Self-nourishing; pertaining to the ability of an organism to produce its own nutrients from inorganic compounds. MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD!
Alveoli
The thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs on the end of bronchi where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
Cardiovascular System
The body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells. Responsible for moving blood through the body.
Respiratory System
The organ system responsible for the intake of oxygen and diffusion of that gas into the blood and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body. Important structures of the system are the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. Alveoli in the lungs are the location of gas exchange with the blood. The movement of the muscular diaphragm allows the lungs to inhale and exhale. Oxygen IN Co2 OUT!
Digestive System
This body system provides the body with nutrients, water, and electrolytes essential for health. These organs serve to ingest, digest/break down, and absorb food and eliminate the remains.
Nervous System
The system responsible for the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Responsible for communication throughout the body.
Homeostasis
The Metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes. Reaching a healthy balance in your body. The maintenance of stable internal conditions in an organism.
Dendrite
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Axon
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands. The long body of a nerve cell.
Synapse
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. Where the messages goes from one to another.
Smooth Muscle
A muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart). Involuntary Muscle.
Skeletal Muscle
Voluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons.
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart.
Voluntary Muscle
A muscle that is under conscious control. You control what it does using your brain and delivering the message through your nervous system.
Involuntary Muscle
A muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled.
Anaerobic Exercise
Intense physical activity that requires little oxygen but uses short bursts of energy. Over short periods of time. EX: Lifting Weights, sprinting, etc.
Aerobic Exercise
Rhythmic, nonstop, moderate to vigorous activity that requires large amounts of oxygen, EX: Running, swimming, etc.
Cartilage
A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together. The "soft cushion".
Joint
A place in the body where two bones come together and are connected. Bone to Bone.
Ligament
A sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs. Something to itself.
Tendon
A cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment. Muscle to Bone!
Cerebrum
The area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body. verything else (Memory, thoughts, decisions, five senses). This is where your five senses help.
Cerebellum
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance. MUSCLE MOVEMENT AND BALANCE!
Brain Stem
Connects brain to the spinal cord. Involuntary movements and actions (breathing, heartbeat, blinking).
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body. Made of sensory neurons and motor neurons.
Sensory Neuron
A neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord (or the Central Nervous System).
Motor Neuron
A neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord. Motor move impulses from brain to body.
Endocrine System
This makes hormones so that it can regulate your body. Involved in everything. Regulated metabolism, reproduction, stress levels, and growth. Made of glands that make hormones.
Hormone
A substance that is made in a one cell or tissue and that causes a change in another cell or tissue in a different part of the body.
Circulatory System
Delivers oxygen to every part of body. As well as removes waste and help the immune system fight disease. Delivers nutrients.
Lymphatic System
System that includes lymph vessels and other important tissues like the duct and spleen. Returns excess fluid to the blood. Helps Fight Disease.
Artery
Blood passages away from heart to the body organs. Blood AWAY from Heart!
Vein
Blood passages to the Heart from body organs. Blood TO the Heart.
Capillaries
The thin blood vessels. Single file blood cells. Both from and to the Heart.
Bone Marrow
Makes up the center of bones. Makes Red Blood Cells!
Heart Attack
The event in which vessels that feed the heart muscle become blocked, causing tissue death. If the heart muscle is damaged, the heart can't get enough oxygen. Blood clots to heart.
Arteriosclerosis
Unhealthy arteries. Hardening or stiffening.
Pharynx
Air enters into the pharynx a tube in the throat. To the esophagus. Stops Food and air goes into the pharynx. Your Throat!
Trachea
Membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi. Also, known as windpipe.
Bronchi
The respiratory tubes that connects it to the lungs. Branches where the alveoli sit.
Asthma
Chronic respiratory disease in which the air passageways become narrower than normal. Narrowed Bronchial tubes.
Pneumonia
Inflammation of lungs. Brought on by bacteria or viruses. And maybe fungi and chemicals. Sometimes injury to lungs. Fluid doesn't let the exchange occur.
Superior Vena Cava
Blood comes from the Head to the heart, through this passageway?
Inferior Vena Cava
Blood comes to the heart from the lower body, through this passageway?
Right Atrium
The First place in the heart that blood gets to. First chamber that holds blood. Pumps blood to the lower chamber called the Right ventricle?
Right Atrium
This pumps blood to the artery that then takes it to the lungs for oxygen.
Pulmonary Artery
The blood passageway that pumps blood to the lungs so that the blood can be oxygenated?
Pulmonary Vein
Blood from the lungs, that now have oxygen, goes back into the heart through this?
Left Atrium
Upper chamber in the heart that pumps blood down through the left atrioventricular.
Left Ventricle
This pumps blood to the whole body and is the biggest part of the heart as well as the strongest part of the blood?
Aorta
This is the blood's exit, in the heart. This is a long muscular tube that leads the blood to throughout the body.
Skeletal System Functions
What system does these?

a. Storing nutrients
b. Making new cells
c. Framework
d. Protection
e. Movement
Gliding Joint
A Joint that is Movable- slide over each other. Example: Wrists
Hinge Joint
A Joint with a Back and forth movement. Example: Elbow and knee
Ball and Socket Joint
A joint like a Joy stick; Moves freely in all directions! Example: Shoulder
Skeletal Muscle
Contract and produce movement and is Voluntary! On and touching the bones.
Osteoporosis
A condition, which bone tissue, is loosely packed and the bones become weak.
Arthritis
A condition in which the joints swell and become stiff and painful.
Limiting Factors
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
EX: Space, Water/Food, Disease/illness, Weather, Predators, Etc.
The Sun
Where Does all of the energy from a food web come from?
Consumer
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.
Renewable Energy
Any source of energy that can be continually produced and is inexhaustible given current conditions. EX: Hydroelectric, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, Etc.
Non-Renewable Energy
A source of energy that exsists in limited quantities and once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of a long period of time. EX: Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Fossil Fuels, Etc.
The 8 Levels Of Classification
How scientists classify living organisms. With the widest at the top and gets more specific as it goes down based on an organism's scientific name.

1. Domain
2. Kingdom
3. Phylum
4. Class
5. Order
6. Family
7. Genius
8. Species
True
True or False: Humans are a heterotrophic multicellular eukaryote.
Milky Way Galaxy
Usually classified as a normal spiral galaxy. contains more than 200 billion stars. about 100,000 light years wide. sun orbits center of Milky Way every 240 million years.
Gas Giant
A large planet of relatively low density consisting predominantly of hydrogen and helium, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune. Jupiter and further out planets.
Terrestrial Planet
Earth or a planet similar to Earth that has a rocky surface. The four planets in the inner solar system—Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—are terrestrial planets.
Big Bang Theory
The current theory that describes the begining of the universe; at time zero, all the matter and energy in the universe were packed together into one immeasurably dense, hot mass, and exploded.
Nucleosynthesis
The Universe began as hydrogen and helium
elements up to iron created in stellar cores in massive stars electrons and protons squeeze together to form neutrons neutrons captured by atoms neutrons decay into protons
new elements formed. Just like how the sun creates fusion, nucleosynthesis created all other elements.
Sunspot
Areas of gas on the sun's surface that are cooler than the gasses around them. Also, shows difference in magnetic fields.
Solar Wind
Wind of charged particles that flows throughout the solar system and begins as gas flowing outward from the Suns corona at high speeds.
Solar Flare
A sudden eruption of intense high, magnetic energy radiation from the sun's surface.
Prominences
Arched shapes of solar activity produced by magnetic fields. When two arches encounter each other a reconnection can release powerful eruptions called flares. Shows the difference in magnetic fields in the Sun.
Planet
A massive, usually spherical space object that orbits a star and shines by reflecting the star's light. A Huge Celestial Body.
Solar System
The collection of planets and their moons in orbit around a sun, together with smaller bodies such as asteroids, meteoroids, and comets. Everything that orbits around the sun due to the sun's huge gravitational pull.
Universe
The totality of known or supposed objects and phenomena throughout space, including every piece of matter.
Galaxy
A large collection of stars, gases, and dust that are part of the universe (e.g., the Milky Way galaxy) bound together by gravitational forces.
Nebula
A large cloud of dust and gas that can break apart into smaller pieces and form stars. The Birthplace of Stars.
Stratovolcano
The most common volcano. Known for its layers of lava flows and cinder. Built up by violent eruptions that leave the tephra followed by calm eruptions that leave lava flows. They build tall and steep volcanoes.
Cinder Cone Volcano
A small, steeply sloped volcano that forms from moderately explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material.
Shield Volcano
A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava.
Caldera
The volcanic formation that is left when a volcano, and its magma chamber collapse.
Ring of Fire
The assortment of volcanoes around the Pacific plate that are right on the boundaries. Lots of volcanic activity, and seismic activity.
Convergent Boundary
When two plates are moving towards each other creating mountains, or trenches.
Divergent Boundaries
When two plates are moving away from each other. Creates ridges, and mountains.
Transform Boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
Subduction
Process in which one plate moves under another plate, and into the mantle. Takes place at a convergent boundary.
Sea Floor Spreading
Process in which new seafloor is made. Magma rises out of the mantle as the plates move away from each other. Divergent Boundary.
Pangaea
(plate tectonics) a hypothetical continent including all the landmass of the earth prior to the Triassic period when it split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland. The supercontinent that is where all continents broke apart from.
Continental Drift
The theory that the continents used to be one, and that they slowly moved apart.
Tectonic Plates
The different parts in which the crust is broken into.
Convection
The process of hot magma rising to the surface of the Earth where it cools, and it gets sent back to the inner Earth. Conveyor belt.
Slab Pull
When crust with different densities move towards each other and one of them sinks into the mantle.
Ridge Push
When two plates separate, and magma rises to earth's surface creating higher, newer land.
Rift Valley
When plates separate creating a valley which in time, can create an ocean.
Fault
Crack in Earth's crust which forms from transform boundaries Ex: San Andreas Fault.
Igneous Rock
A rock formed from cooled magma/or lava.
Sedimentary Rock
Formed when rocks are eroded into sediment. They are deposited, and after layers build up, they compact, and cement to form this type rock.
Metamorphic Rock
A rock that is formed from intense heat and pressure.
Igneous to Metamorphic
When an igneous rock experiences extreme, and intense heat and pressure.
Igneous to Sedimentary
When an igneous rock gets eroded, and its remains get deposited, and later compacted, and compressed.
Sedimentary to Igneous
When a sedimentary rock is melted, and then later cools. (lava/magma).
Sedimentary to Metamorphic
When a sedimentary rock is exposed to extreme heat and pressure.
Metamorphic to Igneous
When metamorphic rock is melted, and it later cools. (lava/magma).
Metamorphic to Sedimentary
When a metamorphic rock changes by being eroded, and deposited. It later gets compressed to show this type of rock change.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Igneous rock that forms from cooled lava ABOVE Earth's surface.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
A rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma BENEATH Earth's surface.
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
The sedimentary rock that is formed from remains of other rocks.
Organic Sedimentary Rock
The sedimentary rock that is formed from remains of living things.
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
The sedimentary rock that is formed from minerals that harden. Doesn't look like a rock.
Foliated Metamorphic Rock
A metamorphic rock that has bands across it because minerals have a special organization.
Non-Foliated Metamorphic Rock
A metamorphic rock who's minerals don't have any organization at all.
Weathering
The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface.
Compaction and Cementation
When sediments are pressured together to solidify to make rocks.
Deposition
The change of state from a gas directly to a solid.
Lithosphere
The part of the mantle in which plates float on.
Asthenosphere
Part of mantle in which convection takes place.
Mesosphere
Lowest Part of the Mantle. Physical layer. Very slow moving rock.
Inner Core
Part of core that is made of solid iron, and nickel!
Outer Core
Part of core that is made of liquid iron, and nickel!
Primary Waves
A seismic wave that proves that the Earth has three compositional layers. They bend at different densities.
Shear or Secondary Waves
A seismic wave that proves the the outer core is liquid. They cannot pass through liquid, so they bounce off.
Relative Dating
A method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock!
Radiometric Dating
Using half-lives to determine the age of isotopes.
Index Fossils
The amount of time it takes for one half of an atom to start to radioactively decay.
The Law of Superposition
In the horizontal layers of sedimentary rock the oldest layers are at the bottom.
Half Life
The amount of time it takes for one half of an atom to start to radioactively decay.
The Age of the Earth
Though we don't know, scientists believe that it may be 4.54 Billion years old, but others say that the Earth is only in the 6 thousands.
Global Warming
The theory of an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes).
Greenhouse Effect
The process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases that form a "blanket" around the Earth.
Greenhouse Gases
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Biosphere
The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist. Referring to anything living.
Geosphere
The mostly solid, rocky part of the earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust. Referring to land.
Hydrosphere
The total water realm of the Earth's surface, including the oceans, surface waters of the lands, ground water, and water held in the atmosphere. Pertaining to Water.
Atmosphere
The mass of air surrounding the Earth. Referring to air!
Hurricane
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center.
Tornado
A rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm cloud to touch Earth's surface.
Thunderstorm
A small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning.
Drought
Long periods of dry weather; lack of rain; dryness
Flood
An overflowing of water; an excessive amount of water.
Warm Front
A boundary formed where a warm air mass overtakes and rises over a cold air mass. Resulting in light precipitation.A warm front typically replaces cool dry air with warm moist air. Creates clouds and storms.
Cold Front
Forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow. As the cold front moves, warm, moist unstable air is usually replaced by cold, dry stable air.
Stationary Front
A situation in which the surface position of a front does not move; The flow on either side of such a boundary is nearly parallel to the position of the front. Often times cloudy with some rain and some snow.
Occluded Front
A front where a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses and brings cool temperatures and large amounts of rain and snow. Usually almost always cloudy.
Frontal Wedging
Lifting of air resulting when cool air acts as a barrier over which warmer, lighter air will rise. Cold goes down and warmer and less dense rises.
How is Energy Transferred??
Through Thermodynamics; Convection, Conduction, and Radiation.
Convection
The transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion. Where an area of high density moces o an area of low density.
Conduction
The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact.
Radiation
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
Surface Currents
A horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean's surface. Where the warm and cold air pushes the surface of the water.
Deep Sea Currents
Driven primarily by density differences between water masses. Know as "thermohaline circulation".
Coriolis Effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
State of Matter
A physical property that describes matter as a solid, liquid, or gas.
Condensation
The process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water.
Evaporation
The process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas (water to water vapor).
Sublimation
A change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid.
Melting
The change of state from a solid to a liquid.
Freezing
The change of state from a liquid to a solid.
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