Hair-like projections that help cells attach to other surfaces.
Whip-like projections that aid in cellular movement.
Encloses cell contents.
Jelly-like fluid inside the cell.
Granular bodies in the cytoplasm that convert genetic information into protein structure.
One or more circular loops containing genetic information.
What are the four kingdoms of Eukaryota?
Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protista
What are three structures/organelles that are absent in animal cells?
Chloroplasts, Cell Wall, and Central Vacuole.
Acts as the genetic control center of the cell, directs cellular activity, and stores hereditary information.
Center of the nucleus, where ribosomes are assembled.
Thin fibers of DNA which carry all hereditary information.
Provides the cell with structural strength, gives the cell water resistance, and provides some protection form insects and other animals.
Stores nutrients, retains and degrades waste products. Accumulates poisonous materials. Contains pigments enabling plants to attract birds and insects that help the plant reproduce. Provides physical support.
Protein making machines.
Acts as all purpose energy converter, harvests energy to be used for cellular functions.
Produces and modifies molecules to be exported to other parts of the organism. Breaks down toxic chemicals and cellular by-products.
What are the steps of the endomembrane system?
1) Transport Vesicle buds from the smooth or rough ER. 2) Transport Vesicle fuses with Golgi Apparatus dumping contents inside. 3) Golgi Apparatus modifies the molecules as they move through its chambers. 4) Modified molecule bud off from the Golgi as a transport vesicle 5) Vesicles fuses with the plasma membrane, dumping contents outside the cell for delivery elsewhere in the organism.
Modifies proteins that will be shipped elsewhere in the organism.
Why is it called the rough ER?
It has ribosomes attached to its surface.
Synthesizes lipids such as fatty acids, phospholipids, and steriods. Detoxifies molecules such as alcohol, drugs, and metablolic waste products.
Why is it called the smooth ER?
It doesn't have ribosomes on its surface.
What is tolerance?
Liver cells are packed with smooth ER because the liver detoxifies molecules.
Acts as the inner scaffolding of the cell. Provides shape and support. Controls intercellular traffic flow. Enables movement.
Processes and packages proteins, lipids, and other molecules for export to other parts of the organism.
Act as floating garbage disposals for the cells digesting and recycling cellular waste products consumed material.
Site of photosynthesis.
What are the three cell connections in animals?
1) Tight Junctions: Water tight cells that anchor other cells and prevent fluid flow. 2) Desmosomes: Proteins that fasten cells together like velcro. 3) Gap Junctions: Pores surrounded by special proteins that form open channels between cells.
What is the theory of endosymbiosis?
At some point certain bacteria (which have DNA and a cell membrane) were engulfed by a larger cell. Evidence: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own DNA and a double membrane around them.