Terms in this set (45)
McCulloch v. Maryland
The Court's ruling upheld the constitutionality of the creation of the Bank of the US and denied to the states the power to tax the bank. Decision showed "national supremacy"
Brown v. Board of Education
A black student was required to walk 21 blocks rather than attend a school that was four blocks from her house. Case called for desegregation of schools. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson.
Roe v. Wade
The Court ruled state laws prohibiting abortion unconstitutional, because the 14th Amendment provides for a woman's freedom to make decisions about her reproductive practices.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Slave travels to non-slave state and says that he is now free. The courts disagreed. This decision stated that slaves are not citizens of any state or of the United States - therefore having no right to the Due Process.
Weeks v. United States
Police raid home of suspect without search warrant/ find incriminating material. Judge rules that the "exclusionary rule" prevents use of illegally obtained evidence in trials.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case broadly defined Congress' right to regulate interstate commerce. (Commerce Clause)
Plessy v. Ferguson
The Supreme Court ruled that the state laws enforcing segregation by race are constitutional if accommodations are equal as well as separate. Subsequently overturned by Brown v. Board of Education.
Marbury v. Madison
This case established judicial review as a power of the Supreme Court to check the powers of Congress and the President.
Tinker v. DesMoines
Two students wore black arm bands to school to protest Vietnam War. Supreme Court decided that student have a right to freedom of expression, as long as it does not disrupt the instruction or learning.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Supreme Court decides that state courts are required to provide a lawyer in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorney.
Engle v. Vitale
Decision forbids "building a foundation of religion in public schools". In a country of many religions, imposing a majority religion was unconstitutional.
Korematsu v. US
During WWII, Japanese Americans were forced to internment camps. A Japanese man sued. Ruling said that the actions of the US government were constitutional - civil liberties can be limited during a time of war.
Griswold v. Connecticut
Connecticut's law prohibited any form of preventing contraception. When a doctor was arrested after giving a married couple information on contraception, the Supreme Court overturned the arrest.
Miranda v. Arizona
Man was arrested and questioned before he confessed to a crime. Man appealed his conviction and won, saying that he was unaware of his rights (right to remain silent, etc.)
Regents of University of California v. Bakke
Affirmative Action Ruling - ruling allowed a university to admit students on the basis of race (rather than judging solely on grades). The quota system, however, is unconstitutional due to the 14th Amendment.
Schenck v. United States
The Court upheld WWI Espionage Act. In a landmark decision dealing with free speech, Judge said that a person who encourages draft resistance during war is "clear and present danger".
Ex Parte Milligan
President Lincoln suspended habeas corpus. A civilian was tried in a military court - is any of this constitutional? The Court ruled that the civilian should be tried in a civilian court and be guaranteed the right to a fair and speedy trial by jury.
Barron v. Baltimore
Because your Bill of Rights starts out "Congress shall make no law", Supreme Court ruled that your 5th amendment right does not apply to states; it is intended to limit your federal government's power. Therefore, states do not need to apply the Bill of Rights to their citizens. This case will be overruled by Gitlow v. New York.
Gitlow v. New York
This court case established the doctrine of selective incorporation. Due to the ratification of the 14th Amendment, and its Due Process and Equal Protection clause, states must now enforce the Bill of Rights. This will be done through a selective process by Supreme Court.
Wesberry v. Sanders
This court case addresses the issue of gerrymandering, or unfair and unbalanced congressional re-districting. The court asked state legislatures to enforce and follow the 14th Amendment - one person, one vote.
Baker v. Carr
This court case re-addressed the issue of congressional re-districting. Courts put themselves into the check and balance process of approval of new congressional district maps. Now the state supreme courts must approve all new maps.
Reynolds v. United States
Your first amendment right - freedom of religion and free exercise is not upheld if you are breaking the law. Therefore, polygamy cannot be practiced.
New York Times v. United States
This case dealt with the printing of the Pentagon Papers. The Nixon administration wanted to limit Free Press under the 1st Amendment and issue an order of prior restraint. The Court ruled freedom of the press is not absolute and prior restraint does not need to be exercised.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
The Lemon Test was established with this court case. The Court upheld the 1st Amendment Free Establishment Clause under freedom of religion, religious schools cannot use state funding to enhance or foster religious values or teaching.
United States v. Nixon
Executive Privilege is not absolute.
Mapp v. Ohio
A court case that is a prime example of selective incorporation. Supreme Court decided that states must uphold the 4th Amendment.
Texas v. Johnson
Under the 1st Amendment, free speech, it is implied that there is a right to free expression. Therefore, the burning of the United States flag is constitutional.
Oregon v. Smith
Freedom of Religion and the Free Exercise Clause does not uphold the right to use illegal drugs in religious ceremonies.
Bethal v. Fraser
Free speech in school is limited if the speech is lewd and obscene.
Roth v. United States
Free Speech in public is limited, if the speech/expression/illustration is lewd or obscene. Community standards are now set and followed.
Gratz v. Bollinger
Affirmative Action is constitutional - the point system is not.
Morse v. Frederick
Free speech in schools or at school sponsored events is limited, if it is suggesting illegal drug use.
Gregg v. Georgia
The death penalty is not cruel and unusual - therefore, it is not violating the 8th Amendment.
Citizens United v. FEC
Money equals Free Speech. The government cannot limit free speech, and therefore, cannot limit campaign contributions to interest groups - thus the Super PAC is born.
Buckley v. Valeo
Money equals Free Speech. Limits campaign donations to a person/candidate. Does not limit to a party. A candidate can donate as much as they want to themselves. Post- Watergate Scandal.
United States v Lopez
The federal law - Gun-Free School Zones Act - is deemed unconstitutional, violating the Commerce Clause of Article I of the Constitution.
Clinton v. City of New York
The Line-Item Veto is unconstitutional. The President must veto all parts of a bill/budget.
District of Columbia v. Heller
The right to bear arms is upheld - The DC ban on handguns is overturned.
United Steel Workers v. Weber
Affirmative Action in the workplace is constitutional.
Safford School District v. Redding
Strip-searching of students by a school official is a violation of the 4th Amendment if there is no reasonable suspicion.
Arizona v. United States
States cannot make immigration law, as a violation of Article I - legislative branch, and principles of federalism.
McDonald v. Chicago
Cities cannot ban handgun, or regulate state of gun in households, as a direct violation of the 2nd Amendment.
Bush v. Gore
Comprehensive manual recount infringes on the 14th Amendment.
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Compulsory school attendance is unconstitutional if it goes against religion.
Obergefell v. Hodges
States must acknowledge same sex marriage licenses because of the 14th Amendment.