Civil War Exam 2


Terms in this set (...)

John Pope
- Union commander brought in to lead Army of Virginia after the failed Peninsula Campaign
- Chosen over Grant bc of Grants own reputation (Drunk,Battle of Shiloh)
- Comes from the Western theatre, untarnished rep
- Defeated at Second Bull Run
Pope's Proclamation
- decree to his own soldiers saying "I have come from the West where we have always seen the backs of our enemies"
-essentially insulting his own men and becomes unpopular immediately
- issues order that his army will live off the land in VA aka forage and steal, which offends and threatens Lee who is in the area and doesn't approve of this type of warfare
Fitz-John Porter
- Commander of one of Mclellan's corps
- Fought well and aggressively during Seven Days Battle
- Democrat and close friend of Mclellan
- Transferred to Pope's command in the Army of Virginia
- Proves an innovative and strategic leader ---> Aerial Reconnaissance
- Ousted from the army following his failure to reach John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run, combined with his previous comments about Lincoln (critical of Lincoln, close to Mclellan who hates Pope, accusations of sabotaging own war effort)
Henry Halleck
-"old brains"
- brought in from the West to be Chief of Staff of the union military
- tasked with finding out Mclellans plan (who is still on the peninsula at this time)
Second Bull Run
- August 1862
- Lee realizes Mclellan isn't making any moves and sets his sites on John Pope
- Sends Stonewall Jackson and AP Hill towards Pope and follows them to meet up and plan an attack
- Jackson's army takes Union supply depot and draws Pope's army out from their defensive position
- Pope ignores warnings that Lee is coming and attacks Jackson in hopes that he will retreat
- Lee and James Longstreet arrive and destroy Pope's army
- Union army under Pope defeated
- Fitz-John Porter had been sent by Mclellan to reinforce Pope but didn't arrive in time
Mclellan July 1862 and on
- Still on the peninsula campaign in late summer of 1862 following failure of peninsula campaign
- Wants to attack Richmond at this point but is ordered to bring troops back to Washington instead, not doing much
- Calls from Lincoln's cabinet for him to be removed arise after Second Bull Run (August 1862) but Lincoln doesn't want to just yet, knows of his ability to raise an army
- Removed from general in chief to only Head of Army of Washington in September 1862
- When Lee moves to invade MD in Sep 1862, where his army is occupied, Mclellan takes too long to execute a plan that could have annihilated Lee's army following Order 191 intelligence
- Following Lee's retreat after Antietam, Mclellan refuses to go after him
Lincoln timeline
- late summer of 1862 we see in Lincoln's writings him starting to question the institution of slavery
- On a carriage ride to Edwin Stanton's childs funeral in July 1862, Lincoln mentions the emancipation proclamation for the first time to Gideon Wells and William Seward
- Writes first draft shortly after
John Quincy Adams
- addresses the coming of a civil war decades before its actual break out
- Sets out the legal framework that Lincoln will later draw on to abolish slavery
William Gladstone
- British statesman made a speech in October 1862 supporting the Confederacy (did not consider slavery a problem and said Jefferson Davis had "made a nation")
European Intervention/Recognition
- The period of mid 1862 was a period of fear that Britain could actually recognize the Confederacy (and France and Russia as well as a result)
- William Gladstone, a British statesman made a speech supporting the Confederacy (did not consider slavery a problem and said Jefferson Davis had "made a nation")
- Battle of Antietam discouraged the British and French governments from pursuing any potential plans to recognize the Confederacy
Salmon Chase
- Surprisingly opposed Lincoln's initial draft of the emancipation proclamation despite being an abolitionist
- His hesitance was largely because of financial reasons, give he was Secretary of Treasury
Reactions to Lincolns initial emancipation proposal (July 1862)
- Salmon Chase opposed it bc $$
- Blair believed it would be detrimental to Union war effort
- William Seward thought it wasn't the right time, they had just gotten beat badly at Second Bull Run and didn't want it to seem like a last ditch effort
William Seward
- Secretary of State
- Calls the Union armies inaction during Antietam combined with conservative backlash to the emancipation proclamation an "ill wind" in the North
Gideon Welles
Lee's invasion of Maryland (Maryland Campaign)
- in Sepember 1862
-Lee decides he want to invade the North and move the battlefield from VA to MD
- Hopes that MD will flip and support the confederacy, view them as liberators since MD was a slave border state that didn't secede)
- Believed he could force Mclellans army in to the open and destroy them, and wanted to influence voters in the North as state elections were coming up
- Moves his 50,000 men towards Western MD which isn't particularly pro South like other parts of MD
- Thousands of his men desert upon arrival
- Army fights for 10 weeks, army is in terrible condition (no shoes, wearing rags, hungry)
- By September 1862, Lee's army is completely separated with Mclellan following them
- Union gains intelligence from Lee's Order 191 but Mclellan fails to act quick enough in classic fashion
- Culminates in the Battle of Antietam
Lee's Proclamation to People of Maryland
- September 1862, Lee issues upon invasion of North
- Issued to encourage the citizens of MD to rise up in rebellion against the Union, and openly join the Confederate cause
- Neither rebellion or the desired generalized support was not forthcoming
Order 191
- issued by Lee, laid out exactly where his army was and where they planned to reconvene during his MD campaign
- falls in to Union hands and makes its way to Mclellan
Battle of Antietam
- September 1862
- Following Lee's invasion of MD, Jeb Stuart (confederate calvary commander, informs Lee that Mclellan is approaching faster so Lee tries to begin consolidating his split up troops
- Mclellan arrives with forces greatly outnumbering Lee's but decides to wait until the next day to attack (by which time Lee has gained thousands of troops)
- Joseph Hooker leads first attack against Lee's army
- Mclellan has more men on reserve than Lee had in his whole army, but doesn't use them
- Lee forced to retreat and Mclellan doesn't go after him
- Bloodiest day in American history
JEB Stuart
Confederate calvary commander who was too busy on raids to perform his duty and alert Lee of the approaching Union army before Gettysburg
Joseph Hooker
- Leads first attack against Lee's army during Battle of Antietam
- Replaces Burnisde as head of Army of Potomac in January 1863
- Open proponent of a military dictatorship and had undermined Burnsides command, so Lincoln took a risk promoting him, but had a good track record -
- Had never commanded a whole army before
- Leads union army at Battle of Chancellorsville
Ambrose Burnside
- Career army officer, eager to enact orders (characteristics that seemed fitting for what Lincoln wanted)
- Led massacre attack at Burnside Bridge during Battle of Antietam
- Offerred position as head of the Army of the Potomac following Mclellans relief in November 1862
- Initially declines, but when faced with possibility that they would give the position to Hooker should he decline he accepts
- After Fredericksburg and Mud March, Burnside relieved of his position
- Replaced as head of the Army of the Potomac by Joseph Hooker
Matthew Brady
Famous civil war photographer who captured Antietam
Aftermath of Antietam
- Prior to the Battle, Lincoln pushed Mclellan to make moves and destroy Lee's army, but he doesn't
- Antietam is essentially a draw, but Mclellan takes credit for pushing Lee back to VA (but really he retreated)
- Even generals under Mclellan were unhappy that Mclellan didn't pursue and attack the retreating Lee
- However, the battle is still viewed as a major victory in Northern Press
- Mclellan hangs around for a while and Lincoln visits him at Antietam, imploring him to move in to VA after Lee
Major Key and Major Turner
- In the wake of Antietam, the two shared correspondence that made comments about saving slavery
- This contributes to Lincoln's growing fair that there is a political within the Army of the Potomac (to save slavery)
- Learns of the letter and the two majors are fired
Consequences of Antietam
- Army of Northern VA (Lee) loses it's air of invincibility
- Britain and France retreat from idea of intervention - seals the deal for foreign recognition
- Mclellan removed shortly after this (November 1862)
- Because it's largely praised in the North, Lincoln can now issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Second Confiscation Act
- Passed in july 1862
- stated that any Confederate official, military or civilian, who did not surrender within 60 days of the act's passage would have their slaves freed in criminal proceedings
- extended the power of the Union military to free slaves in the Confederacy
Emancipation Proclamation
- Executive order issued by Lincoln on January 1, 1863
- Justified by Lincoln as an exercise of war powers (suppressing rebellion)
- Thus, slaves were freed only in rebel states (he didn't have the constitutional right to free slaves in Union states, but this freed a majority of them)
- Lincoln had meticulously planned and timed the proclamation so that it would stand under harsh legal scrutiny (Roger Taney still chief justice at the time)
- Radical Republicans like Thaddeus Stevens weren't satisfied with the proclamation - wanted immediate emancipation and revenge on the south
Presidential War Powers
- What Lincoln uses to put forth the Emancipation Proclamation
Elections of 1862
- Midterm elections, many Republican seats are taken by Peace democrats
- "ill wind" create by armies inaction at Antietam and conservative backlash to emancipation proc (titled by William Seward) proves detrimental to Lincolns party in these elections
- Republican losses could be attributed to failure to deliver a speedy end to the war suspension of habeas corpus, and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor market/take jobs
-BUT, Lincoln now feels free to deal with Mclellan as he sees fit now that he no longer has to worry about upsetting his party - Removes him in november 1862
James Longstreet
Thomas (Stonewall Jackson)
Leading up to Battle of Fredericksburg
- Following Maryland campaign and Antietam, Lee knew his army was too battered and had too many deserters to move North again, wanted to avoid battle
- But, Burnside was newly in charge of the Army of the Potomac and felt pressured to act quickly
- Burnside decides he needs to cross the Rappahannock River and take Fredericksburg
Battle of Fredericksburg
- December 1862
- Bridges in to the city had been destroyed, needs pontoon bridges but Hillock doesn't get them there for some 30 days (so Burinsides hanging out by the river while Lee's army is being built back up to 72,000 men )
- Lee had major advantage occupying the city
- Burnsides army makes it across where Lee is waiting
- Street and house fighting ensues, first time we see urban warfare
- Lee has advantageous position behind a stone wall with hundreds of yards of straight field in front that union soldiers must make it across
- Union soldiers slaughtered relentlessly trying to breech Lee's army, Burnside keeps sending more brigades to no avail
- Union army suffers massive casualties, forced to retreat, and proves to be another huge headache for Lincoln
Braxton Bragg
- Confederate general who invaded Kentucky in October 1862 (Western theatre general rn)
- Possibly the most hated general of civil war
- Expected Kentuckians to rise up and join southern cause bc it was a slave state (as Lee had in MD) but doesn't really happen
Don Carlos Buell
- Union general who followed Braxton Bragg in to Kentucky, commands at Battle of Perryville, results in draw
Battle of Perryville
- October 1862
- Major offensive by the confederacy in Kentucky that results in a draw
- Bragg on the confederacy side isn't treated as a liberator as expected and Don Carlos Buell on the Union side following in to Kentucky
William Sherman
- In late 1862, Sherman was busy destroying railways (realized they were a major source of weakness)
- At this time he was still relatively unknown and not highly regarded
- West Point grad from OH
- Was living in Louisiana at the break out of the war and had a better idea than most about Southern mentality - knew before anyone else that this would be a long, bloody war that would require a huge army to squash the South
Sherman/Grant strategy ** potential essay**
- "They cannot be made to love us" quote
- Both men realize that the South will have to be subdued not peacefully brought back in
- Hold very different views towards Southern civilians than Mclellan
- goal was not only to cripple the Confederate's ability to wage war but to crush their spirit, wanted to make this hard war - want the south to feel the hard hand of war
- by Mid 1863 they are starting to implement this plan
- Raiding southern towns, leaving nothing of value, ripping up railroads to completely disrupt and wreak havoc on the the South
- Sherman follows Grants orders and effectively destroys Jackson, MS
The Hard Hand of War
- Strategy adopted my Grant and Sherman
- Phrase used by Sherman in a letter to Halleck in 1864
- goal was not only to cripple the Confederate's ability to wage war but to crush their spirit, wanted to make this hard war and do whatever necessary to win the war
John Andrew
- First to try to raise a black regiment (blacks authorized to serve in Army in Emancipation)
- Governor of MA
- Gets permission from from Edwin Stanton (secretary of war) to raise a regiment
- has very specific criteria for the man he wanted to lead this black regiment and finds his man in Robert Shaw
Frederick Douglass
- Travels extensively to try and recruit black men to the Union army follow emancipation and approval to raise a black regiment
- Allowing blacks to serve is what he had been pushing for all along, works hard to recruit them
- Escaped slave abolitionist
Robert G. Shaw
- Son of wealthy abolitionist MA family, 25 y/o
- Agrees to lead first black regiment in February 1863 after initial hesitance
Davis Proclamation on Black Soldiers
- issued in december 1862
- Orders any black soldier caught in arms to be put in to slavery (even though many of them weren't slaves to begin with - they were free men)
- Orders any white officer leading black soldiers to face criminal charges and be subject to execution
- Shows the souths refusal to treat black soldiers equally
- Lincoln ends prisoner exchange policy as a response (General Order 252)
Battle of Vicksburg
-Grant decides he needs to make moves and zeros in on Vicksburg, MS (the *confederate gibraltar")
- Located on a bend that would be vital to Union control of the Mississippi river (though it seems impregnable)
- By April 1863 Grant is finally able to find a crossing for his army
- traps Pemberton in Vicksburg, surrounds and bombards the city for 6 weeks before Pemberton is forced to surrender
- Grant agrees to parole confederate army rather than take them prisoner (A pledge by a prisoner not to take up arms )
- Capture of Vicksburg a significant victory for the Union (capture of Mississippi river) and we see Grant impressing Lincoln
Nathaniel Banks
- Sent to relieve Butler in New Orleans as commander of the Gulf in November 1862
John Pemberton
- Confederate commander at Vicksburg in April 1863
- Surrounded by Grant's army and forced to surrender after 6 weeks of bombardment, army is paroled
The Mud March
- Following disastrous defeat at Fredricksburg, Burnside wants to raise morale and turn the tables on Lee
- Plans an offensive against Lee (Still in Fredericksburg/Rappahannock area) but heavy rain turns roads to mud and the wagons and men are completely bogged down and unable to move - forced to abandon plan
- Burnside is relieved as head of Army of the Potomac and replaced by Joseph Hooker
Murfreesbro (Stones River)
- December 1862
- Battle that took place between Rosencrans (Union) and Bragg (confederacy)
- Union wants to retake middle Tennessee
- Rosecrans moves towards Murfreesbro and is met by Braggs forces
- Confederacy hurts Union badly at first but stalemate ensues and Rosecrans will break achieve a Union victory when Bragg is forced to retreat
Battle of Chancellorsville
- May 1863
- Fought in forrest wilderness
- Facing an enemy force nearly twice his size, Lee daringly split his troops in two, confronting Hooker and eventually defeating the Union army
- Stonewall Jackson shot by friendly fire, loses his arm, and eventually dies of pneumonia
- Confederate victory but Lee will never find a replacement for what he had with Jackson
- Hooker resigns after this battle
Burnside's General Order #38
- April 1863
- Issued by Ambrose Burnside (who was now in charge of Department of OH)
- Prohibited treasonous speech
- Any kind of opposition to the war — such as that expressed by the Copperheads peace movement — was considered sympathy to the enemy, and the order was immediately used as justification to arrest Ohio Representative Vallandigham
Clement Vallandingham
- Ohio politician who was arrested as a result of Burnsides General Order #38 (criticized Lincoln and the Unions violations of civil liberties)
- Peace Democrat (copperhead)
- convicted in a military tribunal and exiled to the confederacy
- peace democrats who didn't support the war
George Meade
- Takes over command of Army of the Potomac in June 1863
- Leads union army in Battle of Gettysburg
Leading up to Gettysburg
- Lee wants to again invade the north, convinced that decisive victory will push Lincoln to finally sue for peace
- Longstreet, Ewell, and AP Hill are corp commanders under Lee in Army of Northern VA
- Lee moving through PA making residents mad with his extortion and rounding up for free blacks and sending south
- Meanwhile JEB Stuart is supposed to be keeping track of the Union army but is busy leading raids, neglecting his primary duty as calvary commander
Battle of Gettysburg
- July 1-3 1863
- Lee learns that Union army (under Meade) is close and organizes around Gettysburg
- Small brigades of confederate and union forces stumble upon each other at Gettysburg
- Both armies exhausted, Lee orders his army across a mile of open field to hardly any avail
- On the third day, confederates attempt to assault Union lines in Pickett's Charge (despite Longstreet's hesitations) and are unsuccessful, resulting in the culmination of Gettysburg and Lee forced to retreat
Little Round Top
- Rocky hill held by Union forces during Battle of Gettysburg that Lee wants
- Confederate forces attempt to take Little Round Top on the second day of Gettysburg but are met with a bayonet charge led by Joshua Chamberlain
Joshua Chamberlain
- Defended Little Round Top during the Battle of Gettysburg and led the bayonet charge agains the confederates, forcing their retreat from the hill
Post Gettysburg
- Loss at Gettysburg is terrible blow to the south
- Lee accepts all the blame for the loss
- Things not looking great for the confederacy (Vicksburg surrender, Gettysburg defeat, death of Stonewall Jackson)
- Lincoln believes a great opportunity had been missed (Meade didn't go after Lee's army just as Mclellan hadn't after Antietam)
- After this, we enter a relatively quiet period
Daniel Sickles
- Union commander who disobeyed Meade during Gettysburg and weakened there defensive position
New York Draft Riots
- Congress passes conscription law in 1863 and in July 1863 riots break out in response
- New York pretty democratic at the time, people unhappy about draft
- Turns in to a racial issue as well, as many rioters were Irish immigrants who feared free black people competing for work and resented that wealthier men who could afford substitutes
- Another thorn in the north and Lincoln's side
- Wealthy men (both north and south) could pay to have a substitute serve for them if they were drafted
- another source of tension during the New York draft riots
Joseph Johnston
- had a series of failures during this time that leads Jefferson Davis to want to remove him
- Responsible for failing to relieve Pemberton at Vicksburg, failed to take offensive against Union forces, plagued by desertion
Battle of Chickamauga
- September 1863
- Braxton Bragg on the confederate side vs William Rosecrans on the union side
- The campaign that brought the Union and Confederate armies to Chickamauga began in late June 1863, when Rosecrans advanced southeastward from Murfreesboro, Tennessee, against the Confederate Army under Bragg
-Rosecrans's goal was to capture the city of Chattanooga and he successfully pushed the Confederates out of Chattanooga
-Bragg called for reinforcements and launched a counterattack on the banks of nearby Chickamauga Creek, GA
- Rebels force Union army back to Chattanooga
- Even though the Confederates won the battle and the Union was temporarily halted in its attempt to get through Georgia, the Union still had control of Chattanooga.
- Siege of union army ensues at Chattanooga, Grant along with Sherman arrive to break the siege and force Confederates away
William Rosecrans
- Union commander at Murfreesboro and Chickamauga
George Thomas
- "Rock of Chickamauga"
- Replaces Rosencrans after Chickamauga
- an important rail junction and gateway to the Deep South
Missionary Ridge
- November 1863
- Following Battle of Chickamauga, confederates under Bragg have Union army trapped in a seize until Grant arrives with reinforcements and break the seize
- After reestablishing supply lines, Grant wants to launch an offensive against confederates in the area
- Battle ensues at Missionary Ridge (chattanooga) and Union is victorious
James Conkling
- Writes letter to Lincoln telling him he's not fighting to free negros
Dix Hill Cartel
- July 1862
- Agreement that allowed for equal exchange of prisoners based on rank between Union/Confederacy
- Serves both armies fairly well until emancipation proclamation allow blacks to serve in the Union arm ( Jefferson Davis authorizes enslavement of blacks soldiers and potential execution of white officers leading them)
General Order 100
- also known as the Lieber Code or Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field
- Issued by Lincoln
- Set out rules of conduct that armies should follow in war time w prisoners
- Demanded equal treatment of captured soldiers regardless of race
Order 252
- Issued by Lincoln in retaliation to Confederacy denying the exchange of black soldiers and treating them differently than white POWs
- Suspends all prisoner exchanges until Confederacy agrees to treat all prisoners equally
- Sates that for any white general executed for leading black soldiers a confederate solider would be too and any black soldier enslaved would warrant a confederate solider put to hard labor
54th Massachusets
- First black regiment of the Union Army, led by Robert Shaw
Ft. Wagner
- Fort in SC that General Shaw agrees to lead a charge against with his 54th Massachusetts regiment
- Shaw tells his men that their legacy is on the line with this battle, the whole world is watching (it was, the regiment had recently starting garnering some respect)
- Shaw is killed in battle along with many of his men but the 54th was widely acclaimed for its valor during the battle, and the event helped encourage the further enlistment and mobilization of African-American troops
- Greatly improved view of black soldiers in eyes of Northern public
Nathan Bedfort Forrest
- Confederate general who captures Fort Pillow and massacres all the black soldiers and many white
Sources of contention post war
- Fort Pillow massacre
- Andersonville prison
Gettysburg Address
- First time the Declaration is invoked to be almost on par with the Constitution
- Influenced the way people viewed the Declaration
War Democrats vs Peace Democrats
- War Democrats supported the Union and aggressive military towards towards the confederacy but could be critical of Lincoln
- Peace Democrats (copperheads) didn't support the war and advocated for restoring the union through negotiation
Southern Advantages at wars start
- Myth of lost cause sprang up quickly, but wasn't necessarily that way from the start:
- Superior military leadership (Lee, Johnston, Beauregard) and a larger militarily skilled/trained population
- South is geographically much larger
- South has interior lines which North had to invaded and hold
- North would be in enemy territory --> south has home field advantage
- North held little territory in the south prior to the war
- South had railroads in their territory that was being invaded
- Able to mobilize unheard of portions of their population bc slaves could keep the economy going (though North still had a population advantage)
- Possibly greater motivation for some
Edward Bates
Attorney General under Lincoln during the civil war
-commonly used to describe escaped slaves
- The Army (and the United States Congress) determined that the US would not return escaped slaves who went to Union lines and classified them as contraband
- First called this name by Union general Benjamin Butler after three escaped slaves reach his line and he refuses to return them
Radical Republicans
- Want abolition, think Lincoln is moving too slow
-biggest critics of McClellan
- One of the ideas Lincoln tossed around for dealing with freed African Americans
- Idea was to settle them overseas
Horace Greeley
- Wrote a letter in the influential New York Tribune in August 1862 urging Lincoln to proclaim emancipation
- Lincoln had already decided by this point that he was going to do so, he was just waiting for the right moment, but this letter game him a chance to respond publicly
- Expresses his primary objective of preserving the union and his willingness to free (or not free slaves) if thats what it took to do so