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History final exam review
Terms in this set (45)
Nomadic people, who kept herds of sheep, gats and camels, migrating through the deserts to find grass and water for their animals. Developed a strong sense of loyalty to their clans and guarded their common interests with determination.
Pilgrimage to Mecca.
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Islamic mysticism that placed more emphasis on emotion and devotion than on strict adherence to rules.
How was Muhammad's early life like with Bedouin age around?
Came into this world of Bedouin herders and worldly merchants. Lost both of his parents by the time he was 6 years old. By age 30, he became a merchant. Did not appreciate either Judaism or Christianity.
What was Muhammad's Spiritual transformations?
His experience aside from a visit from the Archangel, Gabriel left him with the convictions that in all the world there was only one true deity.
Who was Muhammad's god known as?
Allan, who ruled the universe, that idolatry and the recognition of other gods amounted to wickedness, and that Allah would soon bring his judgment on the world, rewarding the righteous and punishing the wicked.
What is Mecca?
Conflict center on religious issues.
How did the Mecca ruling elites react to Muhammad's denouncement of their law?
The wealthiest merchants took it as a personal affront and a threat to their position when Muhammad denounced greed as moral wickedness that all sh would punish.
What are Ka'bas?
Cube-shaped buildings, that drew worshipers from all over Arabia and brought considerable wealth to Mecca.
The new city located in Mecca, founded by Muslims ("the city," meaning "the city of the prophet").
(Migration) Muhammad's move to Medina serves as the starting point of the official Islamic calendar.
("Community of the faithful") community which provided aside with a comprehensive legal and social code.
Throughout the years of Muhammad's religious mission, what did he begin to refer to himself?
"Seal of the Prophets"
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. Must acknowledge Allah as the only God and Muhammad as his prophet.
2. Must pray to Allah daily while facing Mecca.
3. Must observe a fast during the daylight hours of the month of Ramadan.
4. Must contribute alms for the relief of the weak and poor.
5. Those, who are physically and financially able must undertake the hajj and make at least one pilgrimage.
Means, "struggle", and Muslims have understood it's imperatives in various ways.
Emerged during the centuries after Muhammad and offered detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life.
One of Muhammad's advisors, who was one of the prophet's closest friends and most devoted disciples to serve as caliph. (deputy)
Disagreement over succession led to the emergence of the Shia sect, the most important and enduring of all the alternatives to the form of Islam observed by the majority of Muslims.
What does the term Islam mean?
What does the term Muslim mean?
One who has submitted.
Made the Islamic cities hospitable for traders from around the world.
The Umayyad Dynasty
Dealt with large non-Muslim populations. Also established Jizya, which is a special tax paid by non-Muslims that granted them religious toleration.
Abu al-Abbas was the founder. Baghdad became the new capital, Connected trade limits from as far away as China as Spain and was not a conquering dynasty.
What benefits were introduced in Abbasid culture?
Arab mathematicians pioneered advances in Arithmetic geometry, Algebra, and trigonometry.
People with religious knowledge
Describe the formation of the Hemispheric trading zone
Paper manufacture increased
Inns offering food and lodging for traveling merchants.
Islamic banks that honored letters of credit drawn on the parent bank.
Known as Avenoes in the Western world. Had a profound influence and knowledge of Aristotle.
What was the capital of Mongol occupied China?
Temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India and sought to revive imperial authority. Extended his influence to many Himalayan states. Since he could not restore permanent centralized rule, he was then assassinated and the empire disintegrated and most of northern India became divided.
Mahmoud of Ghazni
Leader of the Turks from Afghanistan, sooner turned his attention to the rich land to the south. Was the patron of the arts, who build Ghazni into a refined capital, where he supported historians, mathematicians, and literary figures at his court. His campaigns also hastened the decline of Buddhism in the land of its birth and infamously destroyed the great Somnath Hindu Temple of Gujarat.
Sultanate of Delhi
Hindu kingdoms in northern India, conquered by Muslims and established this Islamic state. The sultans established their capital at Delhi, a strategic site controlling access from the Punjab to the Ganges valley, and they ruled northern India.
The Southern Kingdom of India, ruled by two brothers, Harihara and Bukka, who had converted to Islam, but recognized an opportunity to establish themselves as independent rulers. Eventually renounced Islam, and established their independent Hindu faith. Term meaning "city of victory"
Khanate of Chaghatai
The Mongol capital in occupied Persia. The great khans were nominally superior to the others, but they were rarely able to enforce their claims to authority. In fact, there was always constant tension and occasional conflict among this Khanate and the other 3.
Nomadic people, who displayed deep loyalty to kin groups organized into families, clans, and tribes. Relied heavily on outstanding equestrian skills. Honed their skills by hunting and playing competitive games on horseback. Firing arrows at enemies at 200 meters.
Forged the various Mongol tribes into a powerful alliance that built the largest empire the world has ever seen.
Mongol conquest of Northern China
The new name of Northern China became known as Khanbaliq, meaning "city of the khan" served as also the capital
Mongol conquest and rule of Persia and what was the name of the army of the Persians around the 13th century?
Chinggis Khan led another force to Afghanistan and Persia, ruled at that time by a successor to the Seljugs known as the Kwarazm shah, who despised the Mongols, but were no match for the pursuit of Chiggis Khan's forces pushing them all the way back to the Caspian Sea, where he died, which certainly didn't mean the Mongols fell back. Overtime, the Mongols assimilated to Persian cultural traditions and also allowed the Persia s to administer the ill hamate as long as they delivered tax receipts and maintained order.
Mongol Conquest and rule of Southern China and what was the name of the whole new occupied China dynasty and its rule.
Khubilai Khan, one of the most talented of Chiggnis Khan's descendants extended Mongol rule to all of China. He had eliminated the entire Song Dynasty plus the remaining resistance. In 1279, he proclaimed himself emperor and established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled China until its collapse in 1368. During the rule, Mongols outlawed in marriage between themselves and the Chinese people and convert China itself into pastor eland for their horses.
What were Yurts?
Large tents, made out of wool by the Turkish migrants.
What were some problems for the invasions of other countries like Vietnam, Cambodia, and Burma?
Mongol forces did not adapt well to the humid tropical jungles of Southeast Asia. Pasturelands were inadequate for their horses, and the fearsome Mongol horsemen were unable to cope with the guerrilla tactics employed by the defenders.
What were the Golden Horde, and how did the Russians revolt against the brutal force?
A special force group for the Mongols, who overan Russian between 1237-1242. They maintained its hegemony in Russia until the mid-fifteenth century, when the princes of Moscow rejected its authority while building a powerful Russian state.
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