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Chapters Seven and Eight Ed Psych
Terms in this set (110)
the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
learning that certain events occur together
social cognitive approach
an approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them
the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
cognitive constructivist approaches
a learner-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
social constructivist approaches
approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the idea that knowledge is mutually built and constructed
An approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, especially from rewards and punishments
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically--triggers a response
the stimulus that is the occasion for a conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
generalization in classical conditioning
The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
discrimination in classical conditioning
the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others
extinction in classical conditioning
The weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus.
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
generalization in operant conditioning
performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation
discrimination in operant conditioning
responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced
extinction in operant conditioning
A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement.
applied behavior analysis
the application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior
A principle that states that making the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior contingent on the occurrence of a low-frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for the low-frequency behavior.
schedules of reinforcement
the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will continue; Four types of schedules: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval; interval means over a time and ratio means an act; partial reinforcement is on a variable schedule whereas continuous reinforcement is on a fixed schedule; variable schedules are more effective in learning
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Putting reinforcement contingencies into writing.
a cue given to a performer (usually the beginning of the next line to be spoken)
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Reinforcing only those responses with a response class that meet a specific criterion along some dimension(s) (i.e. frequency, topography, duration, latency, or magnitude) and placing all other responses in the class on extinction.
An operant conditioning procedure in which a person is physically removed from sources of reinforcement to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviors.
The contingent loss of reinforcers (e.g. a fine), producing a decre.ase of the frequency of behavior; a form of negative punishment
social cognitive theory
the theory that personality is shaped and learning is acquired by the interaction of personal, behavioral, and environmental factors
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment
reciprocal determinism model
three main factors, behaviour, person (cognitive) and environment that interact to influence learning
one's ability to act effectively to bring about desired results; from Bandura
learning by observing others
cognitive behavior approaches
Changing behavior by getting individuals to monitor, manage, and regulate their own behavior rather than letting it be controlled by external factors.
Cognitive-behavior techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior
The self-generation and self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal.
information processing approach
approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information
an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes
John von Neumann
United States mathematician who contributed to the development of atom bombs and of stored-program digital computers (1903-1957)
the idea that a person has a certain cognitive capacity, or resources, that can be used for carrying out various tasks
Speed of processing information
leading expert on childrens informational processing, states that thinking is information processing. in other words; when individuals perceie, encode, represent, store, and retrieve information they are thinking. he emphasizes that an important aspect of development is learning good strategies for processing information
the activity of converting from plain text into code
fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention
creation of new procedures for processing information
A collection of cognitive behavioral strategies based on the idea that change can be brought about by teaching people to use coping skills in various problematic situations
the awareness of one's own cognitive process
the process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
concentrating on more than one activity at the same time
The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time.
the process of paying close and continuous attention
involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
cognitive control of attention
increasing ability to tune into certain stimuli, while tuning out of of others
the power of retaining and recalling past experience
the retention of encoded information over time
the cognitive operation of accessing information in memory
a form of practice
levels of processing theory
proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
the number of items a person can reproduce from short-term memory, usually consisting of one or two chunks
memory for intermediate results that must be held during thinking
speech-based part of working memory that allows for the verbal rehearsal of sounds or words
visuospatial working memory
stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery
The part of working memory that is responsible for monitoring and directing attention and other mental resources.
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
A model for describing memory in which there are three distinguishable kinds of memory (sensory, short term, long term) through which info passes in a sequential way as it is processed.
The part of long-term memory where factual information is stored, such as mathematical formulas, vocabulary, and life events.
A subsystem within Long term memory which consists of skills we acquire through repetition and practice (e.g., dance, playing the piano, driving a car)
the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
Theories that describe how information in memory is organized and connected; they emphasize nodes in the memory network.
Theories that when we construct information, we fit it into information that already exists in our mind.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
a cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings
fuzzy trace theory
theory stating that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: 1) verbatim memory trace and 2) gist. older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information
you didn't understand every detail, but you got the gist of it
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
encoding specificity principle
the idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded
the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mental effort)
cue dependent forgetting
the inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall
Proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material
proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
a long-term but reversible physiological response to an environmental change
a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, rehearse, review
preview, question, read, reflect, recite, review
Systematic practice in which the learner is given informative feedback about his/her performance and has the opportunity to correct his/her errors.
pedagogical content knowledge
Knowledge about effective methods of teaching a specific content area.
research on multimedia message design
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
a term used to describe children and adults with autism, emphasizing their inability to attribute mental states to others (theory of mind)
Good Information Processing model
1)children are taught by parents or teachers to use a particular strategy.
2)teachers may demonstrate similarities and differences in multiple strategies in a particular domain, such as math, which motivates students to see shared features of different strategies.
3)students recognize the general benefits of using strategies, which produces general strategy knowledge.
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