Literary Terms quiz friday

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Alliteration
The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. Example: What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt and ominous bird of yore..." or "bleared and black and blind."
Apostrophe
A figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply.
Assonance
The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, usually in stressed syllables, followed by different consonant sounds in proximate words.
Ex.: And so all the night-tide I lie down by the side,
Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride...
-Edgar Allan Poe, "Annabel Lee"
Aubade
A lyric or song delivered at dawn, generally involving lovers who must part or, occasionally, one lover who asks the other to wake up.
Blank verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter. Shakespeare's plays are often in blank verse.
Bucolic
From the Greek for "cowherd," a term that has traditionally been used to refer to pastoral writings. Bucolic poetry typically concerns itself with the pastoral subjects of shepherds and their country ways and values.
Cacophony
A mixture of harsh, unpleasant, or discordant sounds. Although this term is usually applied to poetry, it can refer to any type of writing and can be either unintentional or purposely used for artistic effect. Cacophony is the opposite of euphony.
Caesura
A pause in a line of poetry. Sometimes it coincides with the poet's punctuation, but occasionally it occurs where some pause in speech is inevitable.
Carpe Diem
Latin for "seize the day," a phrase referring to the age-old literary theme that we should enjoy the moment before it is gone, before youth passes away. A related term is carpe carp, or "seize the carp," a reference to fishing in the time before rods and lures, when men would have to literally grab fish with their bare hands (or sometimes bear hands, as the claws made holding onto the fish easier).
Chiasmus
A rhetorical figure in which certain words, sounds, concepts, or syntactic structures are reversed or repeated in reverse order, much like reversed parallel structure.
Ex. Destroying others, by himself destroyed.
-Alexander Pope.
Fair is foul, and foul is fair.
- the witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth
Conceit
An elaborate and often surprising comparison between two apparently highly dissimilar things. Whether it involves strikingly original images or familiar things used in an unusual way, the conceit is most notable for its ingenuity. Conceits often take the form of extended metaphors.
Concrete Poetry
A modern term for pattern poetry or shaped verse. It is to be perceived as a visual object and is at least as notable for its graphic design as for its verbal meaning.
Consonance
The repetition of a final consonant sound or sounds following different vowel sounds in proximate words (made/wood). Some scholars include initial or intermediate consonant sounds when occurring in addition to repeated final consonant sounds.
Couplet
Two successive lines of rhyming verse, often of the same meter.
Dramatic monologue
A lyric poem in which the speaker addresses a silent listener, revealing himself or herself in the context of a dramatic situation. The speaker thus provides information not only about his or her personality but also about the time, the setting, key events, and any other characters involved in the situation at hand.
(ex. - "Ulysses" by Tennyson)
Elegy
A reflective poem that laments the loss of something or someone (or loss or death more generally).
End-rhyme
Rhyme that occurs at the end of lines in verse. In end-rhyme, the most common type of rhyme, the last word of a line rhymes with the last word of another line. End rhyme is distinguished from internal rhyme, which occurs within a line of verse.
End-stopped line
A line of poetry in which a grammatical pause (as indicated by some form of punctuation) and the physical end of the line coincide. The meaning or sense of the line is also complete in itself.
Enjambment
A poetic expression that spans more than one line. Lines exhibiting enjambment do not end with grammatical breaks, and their sense is not complete without the following line(s). Such lines are also commonly referred to as run-on lines.
Epigram
Originally an "inscription" and then simply a short poem, now either a short poem with a brief, pointedly humorous, quotable ending or simply a terse, witty statement in and of itself.

Examples:
Inscribed on a collar given for a dog belonging to Frederick, Prince of Wales, at his estate in Kew: "I am His Highness' dog at Kew -

Pray tell me, sir, whose dog are you?" — A. Pope

Here lies my wife: here let her lie! Now she's at rest - and so am I. — John Dryden

Some cause happiness wherever they go, others whenever they go. — Oscar Wilde

I can resist everything except temptation. — Oscar Wilde
Epitaph
An inscription on a tomb to commemorate the deceased. The term can also refer to a poem, whether serious or humorous, that commemorates the deceased.
Euphony
Pleasing, harmonious sounds. Euphony is the opposite of cacophony, or discordant sounds.
Eye-rhyme
Words that appear to rhyme due to their spelling but that do not rhyme when actually pronounced. Examples: Laughter and slaughter, bough and cough, one and stone.
Free verse
Poetry that lacks a regular meter, does not rhyme, and uses irregular (and sometimes very short) line lengths.
Half-rhyme
A form of rhyme in which words contain similar sounds but do not rhyme perfectly. Also called slant rhyme or imperfect rhyme.
Examples: horse/hearse, thin/slim, rhyme/writhe.
Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet
A fourteen-line sonnet consisting of two parts: the octave, eight lines with the rhyme scheme abbaabba, and the sestet, six lines usually following the rhyme scheme cdecde (sometimes cdcdcd). The octave poses a question or dilemma that the sestet answers or resolves.
Light verse
A term encompassing many different forms of verse, all of which aim to entertain the reader. Forms of light verse include limericks, nursery rhymes, parodies, and nonsense verse. Although always designed to entertain, humor in light verse may be satiric, witty, or simply playful. Light verse is distinguished from other verse by its tone rather than by its subject matter.
Lyric poem
A fairly short, emotionally expressive poem that expresses the feelings and observations of a single speaker.
Metonymy
A figure of speech in which one thing is represented by another that is commonly and often physically associated with it.
Example: calling a monarch "the crown."
Refrain
Repetition of a line, stanza, or phrase.
Synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special, as in ten sail for ten ships or a Croesus for a rich man.