TFM-160 Exam #2

STUDY
PLAY
Omniscient narration
it knows all; it can provide any character's experiences and perceptions, as well as information no character knows.
Restricted narration
reveals information to the audiences only as a specific character learns of it.
Story
all of the explicit and implicit narrative events in the story and the diegesis, or total world in which the story occurs.
Plot
the specific actions and events and the order in which the events are arranged to convey the narrative to the viewer, including the non-diegetic elements.
How to differentiate between story and plot...
filmmakers use plot to tell us a story.
story exists as a precondition to the plot, and the filmmaker must understand what story is being told before going through the difficult job of selecting events to show on-screen and determining in what order to present that.
Diegesis and examples
the total world of the story- the events, characters, objects, setting, and sounds that form the world in which the story occurs.
-voices of characters
-sounds made by objects in the story
-music represented as coming from instruments in the story space
Non-diegetic elements
not acknowledged by the characters (ex: sound score). What we see and hear on the screen that come from outside the world of the story: titles, credits, music (not originating from the world of the story) and voice-over or third-person narration.
Which of the following is the most common relationship of screen duration to plot duration: summary relationship, real time, or stretch relationship?
summary relationship is most common.
Summary relationship
screen duration is shorter than plot duration.
Real time
screen duration corresponds directly to plot duration.
Stretch relationship
screen duration is longer than plot duration.
Voice-over narration
narration heard concurrently and over a scene but not synchronized to any character who may be talking on the screen.
Direct-address narration
narration when a character breaks the "fourth wall"; (the assumed barrier between the characters on the screen and the audience) to address us directly.
Round characters vs. flat characters
round- complex character possessing numerous, subtle, repressed, or contradictory traits. Often develop over the course of a story.
flat- relatively uncomplicated character exhibiting few distinct traits. Flat characters don't change significantly as the story progresses.
Protagonist vs. antagonist
protagonist- primary character whose pursuit of the goal provides the structural foundation of a movie's story.
antagonist- the character, creature, or force that obstructs or resists the protagonist's pursuit of their goal.
Anti-hero
an outwardly unsympathetic protagonist pursuing a morally objectionable or otherwise undesirable goal.
Inciting incident (catalyst)
the event or situation during the exposition stage of the narrative that sets the rest of the narrative in motion. (Catalyst is a person or thing that precipitates an event or change).
Rising action
development of the action of the narrative toward a climax. (A plot is a series of relevant incidents that create suspense, interest and tension in a narrative. In literary works, a rising action includes all decisions, characters' flaws and background circumstances).
Crisis
a critical turning point in a story in which the protagonist must engage a seemingly insurmountable obstacle.
Climax
the highest point of conflict in a conventional narrative; the protagonist's ultimate attempt to attain the goal.
Resolution
the concluding narrative events that follow the climax and celebrate or otherwise reflect upon story outcomes.
Story duration, plot duration, and screen duration
story duration- the length of time the implied story takes to occur (10 to 15 years for Silence of the Lambs)
plot duration- the elapsed time of the events explicitly presented in the film take to occur (maybe a couple of weeks for Silence of the Lambs)
screen duration- the movie's running time on the screen
Spirited Away inciting event
After ten-year-old Chihiro's parents take a detour from the new house they're moving into, in order to explore an abandoned theme park, they inadvertently eat "spirit food" and turn into pigs. Chihiro discovers them at twilight, and as the darkness falls, the spirits begin to arrive in the park's magical realm. She is helped by a boy called Haku, who tells her she must get a job at Yubaba's bathhouse if she is to stay and rescue her parents.
Spirited Away rising action
Sen is tested by No-Face, who offers her gold to keep her in the bathhouse and distract her from her goal of freeing her parents and saving Haku.
Spirited Away crisis
...
Spirited Away climax
Sen gets on a train to go see Zeniba, who holds the key to helping Sen reclaim her identity as Chihiro, saving Haku's life, ameliorating the loneliness of No Face, and determining the fate of Chihiro's parents.
Spirited Away resolution
Chihiro and her unwitting parents return the human world—but Chihiro has been changed forever, no longer fearing something as mundane as moving to a new town.
Rear Window inciting event
L.B. Jeff Jeffries (James Stewart), a famous photographer, can't go adventuring all over the world like he normally does because he's stuck at home mending a broken leg. His only escape is voyeurism, living vicariously through the lives of his neighbors in the buildings adjacent to his. To make matters worse, his too-perfect girlfriend Lisa (Grace Kelly) is angling toward settling down. He's hemmed in on all sides. He decides he's got to break up with her so he can maintain the lifestyle he's used to.
Rear Window rising action
Jeffries beginning to really take notice of his neighbors, as we the viewers being given information about each of them. Ms. Torso, Ms. Lonely Heart, The musician, the couple with the dog, and Thorwald. And further Jeffries seeing Thorwald leave his apartment several times in the middle of the night, the saw and knife being wrapped in paper, the dog digging in the garden, the box with rope around it, etc.
Rear Window crisis
...
Rear Window climax
Lisa sliding the note under Thorwald's door and Jeffries seeing his expression (that he was guilty) when reading it.
Rear Window resolution
In Jeff's rear window world, each story is resolved. Miss Torso is reunited with her boyfriend. Miss Lonelyhearts hook up with the songwriter, whose music prevents her from committing suicide. Thorwald apartments are being repainted. The childless couple gets a new dog. The sculptress finishes her work, 'Hunger'. The newly-weds are beginning to have marital strifes.
Mise-en-scène
the overall look and feel of a movie. The sum of everything the audience sees and hears (sound) and experiences while viewing it. Primarily looking at VISUAL, not sound. The combination of elements within the frame provides the overall meaning to the shot or scene, and influences our mood as we watch it.
What is the literal meaning of mise-en-scène?
staging or putting on an action or scene.
What are the two major visual components of mise-en-scène?
design (three dimensional)- the process by which the look of the settings, props, lighting, costumes, and actors is determined.
composition (two dimensional-"staging the shot")- the organization, distribution, balance, and general relationship of actors and objects.
What are the principal responsibilities of the production designer, and when is the production designer usually brought into the film production (during pre-production, production, or post-production?)
works with the director and director of photography, responsible for the overall design concept, supervises departments that create a movie's look, creates visual continuity, balance, and dramatic emphasis. PRE-PRODUCTION.
What are the major elements of cinematic design?
-setting- environment in which the film takes place.
-decor- color and textures of interior props.
-props (properties)- objects that help us understand characters.
-lighting- creates mood and meaning, allows images to be recorded.
-makeup, hairstyles, costume.
What is composition?
-composition is part of the process of visualizing and planning the design of a movie (the organization, distribution, balance, and general relationship of stationary objects as as well as of light, shade, line, and color within the frame.)
What are the two major elements of composition?
-framing: the border between what the filmmaker wants us to see and everything else. The dimensions of height and width that provide the shape of the movies images.
-kinesis: movement on screen. The movement of objects and characters within the frame and the apparent movement of the frame itself.
What are the two basic types of movement we see on-screen?
-the movement of objects and characters within the frame
-the apparent movement of the frame itself
Properties (props)
a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, scenery, costumes, and electrical equipment.
Sound stage
soundproof, hangar-like structure, building, or room, used for the production of theatrical film-making and television productions, usually located on a secured movie or television studio property.
Chiaroscuro
refers to the high contrast light/dark style used in Renaissance painting and later in cinema.
Familiar image
a repetition of/similar feel of image, sound, character, etc, throughout the film. Lighting is used a lot to get familiar image.
Blocking
working out the details of an actor's moves in relation to the camera.
Compositional stress
occurs when the filmmaker intentionally breaks the rule of thirds, which then denies the viewer their expectation of balance.
What are the differences among a setup, a shot, and a take?
-setup- one camera position and everything associated with it.
-shot- one interrupted run of the camera.
-take- the number of time a particular shot is taken
Who is the Director of Photography/Cinematographer? What are their general duties?
is in charge of how the film looks on screen: they handle the artistic and technical aspects of camera movement and placement for the film in terms of its story and narrative.
Who determines the lighting once the camera setups are chosen?
the cinematographer.
Direction of lighting
light can be thrown onto a movie actor or setting (exterior or interior) from virtually any direction: front, side, back, below, or above. By direction, we also mean the angle of that throw, for the angle helps produce the contrasts and shadows that suggest the location of the scene, its mood, and the time of the day.
Natural light
daylight is the most convenient and economical source, and in fact the movie industry made Hollywood is the center of American movie production in part because of its almost constant sunshine.
Artificial light
artificial lights are called instruments to distinguish them from the light they produce. Among many kinds of these instruments, the two most basic are focusable spotlights and floodlights, which produce, respectively, hard (mirror like) and soft (diffuse) light.
Rule of thirds
the image, divides it in horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middleground, and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into further elements. The grid assists the designer and cinematographer in visualizing the overall potential of the height, width, and depth of any cinematic space.
Eye-level shot
made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral.
High-angle shot (also called high shot or down shot)
made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
Low-angle shot (or low shot)
is made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force.
Dutch-angle shot
the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
Aerial-view shot (or birds'-eye-view shot)
an extreme type of point-of-view shot, is taken from an aircraft or very high crane and implies the observer's omniscience.
Pan shot
the horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. This head ensures smooth panning and tilting and keeps the frame level.
Tilt shot
vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. Like the pan shot, it is a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
Dolly shot
is one taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support, generally known as a dolly. It permits the cinematographer to make noiseless moving shots.
Tracking shot
a type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action (alongside, above, beneath. behind, or ahead of it) when the camera is mounted on a wheeled vehicle that runs on a set of tracks.
Zoom
both a lens and a type of camera movement. It has a variable focal length, which permits the camera operator during shooting to shift from the wide-angle lens (short focus) to the telephoto lens (long focus) or vice versa without changing the focus or aperture settings.
Crane shot
made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that, in turn, is mounted on a vehicle capable of moving by its own power. A crane may also be mounted on a vehicle that can be pushed along tracks to smooth its movement.
Three-point lighting
lighting ratio- balance between illumination and shadow (between key lights, fill lights, and backlights)
-low key lighting is low fill lighting with high contrast (film noir)
-high key lighting is high fill lighting with low contrasts (comedies, musicals)
Key light
the main source of light in a photograph or film.
Fill light
illumination from a source less bright than the key light, used to soften deep shadows in a scene.
Backlight
lighting, usually positioned behind and in line with the subject and the camera, used to create highlights on the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensionality.
Lighting ratio
the relationship and balance between illumination and shadow—the balance between key light and fill light.
Halloween lighting
light coming from underneath.
Deep space composition
a total visual composition that can place significant information or subjects on all three planes of the frame and thus creates an illusion of depth
Deep focus cinematography
using a short-focal-length lens, keeps all three planes in sharp focus
Process shot
combining foreground performances with pre-filmed backgrounds. It was widely used for many years in driving scenes, or to show other forms of "distant" background motion.
Motion capture
is the process of recording the movement of objects or people.
What is persona?
the image of character and personality that we want to show the outside world (people have different personas- similar to a mask, the aspect of someone's character that is presented to or perceived by others)
What are the differences between acting for screen and acting for the stage?
screen actors- essential relationship is between them and the camera. Stage actors play to the audience.

stage actors must project vocally and physically while small gestures are fundamental tools for the screen actor, stage actors memorize their lines and then speak and act them in the story order while screen actors learn only the lines needed for the moment and act out of sequence
Who was Lillian Gish and how did she serve in the evolution of screen acting?
her performance in Broken Blossoms illustrated the qualities of great screen acting: appropriateness, expressive coherence, inherent thoughtfulness/emotionality, wholeness and unity.
What is method acting? And what was it based upon?
encourages actors to speak, move, and gesture not in a traditional stage manner but just as they would in their own lives (Stanislavsky)
What is "casting"?
the process of choosing and hiring actors for both leading and supporting roles.
Play against expectations actor
actors who deliberately play against our expectations of their personae (Leonardo Dicaprio, the Rock, Jennifer Lawrence).
Chameleon actor
actors who seem to be different in every role (Meryl Streep).
Nonprofessional actor
cast to bring verisimilitude to a part.
Personality actor
actors who take their personae from role to role (ex: Morgan Freeman, Tina Fey, Adam Sandler).
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