CS8 Chapter 6 - The Internet and the World Wide Web
Terms in this set (94)
Global system of computers of thousands of privately owned computers and networks
-AKA the Net
-Started in 1960s
-Part of the US Department of Defense project
US Department of Defense project
ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
-purpose was to create a form of secure communication for the military and scientific purposes
-and to create a method for transferring such communication between computers
The Internet is composed of how many hosts?
750 million hosts
What is a "host"
A computer that has two-way access to other computers
-replies to those requests
Who controls the internet?
-volunteers maintain the internet networks
-private and public groups provide the equipment
Network Service Providers (NSPs)
Maintain the "Internet Backbone"- which are the main high-speed routes
Network Access Points (NAPs)
-how NSPs are linked
-NAPs allow data to start on one network and then cross over to another network
What are "routers"
Specialized devices that connect networks, locate the best path of transmission, and ensure that data reaches its destination
What is "interoperability"
The ability to work with different brands and models of computers
What is the "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)"
Provides methods for packaging and transmitting information
What is the function of the "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)"
Manages assembling of a message or file into smaller packets
-packets are transmitted over the internet
-TCP layer on the destination computer reassembles the packets into the original message
What is the function of the "Internet Protocol (IP)"
Handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
-supply and sustain user connections to the internet
-maintain the hardware and software
-protect their sites and networks from outside threats
Online Servie Provider (OSP)
-a for-profit firm that provides a proprietary network
-offers special services only available to subscribers
-Examples: MSN and AOL
Wireless Internet Service Provider
Company that provides wireless Internet access
-Examples: At&T, T-mobile, Verizon Wireless
Public location that provides Internet access for wireless devices
-Examples: airport, college campus, or coffee shop
What are some Methods to access the Internet?
1. Dial-up access - uses modem and telephone line
2. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) - high speed online connection-external modem with telephone lines
3. Cable access - high speed Internet connection-cable modem not a phone line
4. Satellite - high speed Internet service with antenna and dish connection to indoor receive unit (IRU) and indoor transmit unit (ITU)
5. Fiber-optic service - high speed Internet-- fiber-optic lines direct
What is the World Wide Web (WWW or Web)?
-contains billions of documents
-part of the Internet
-Uses the Internet to transport information
-separate entity from the Internet
-no one owns the web
-standards and guidelines for the Web are published by the WWW Consortium (W3C)
What is the difference between the Internet and the Web?
-Internet transports information to and from users
-Web contains the information
What is a "web page"
Document that may include text, graphics, sound, animation, and video
What is a "web browser"
Program that displays Web pages and linked items
What is a "web site"
Collection of Web pages
-typically contains a home page (also called the index page - default page displayed when you enter a site
What is a "hypertext"
Uses links to connect to additional related information
What are "hyperlinks or links"
Words and images that bring other documents into view when clicked
What is "hypertext Markup Language (HTML)"
Uses tags to specify how a Web page should display
What is "extensible hypertext markup language (XHTML)"
HTML combined with Extensible Markup language (XML) to reduce the complexity of HTML
Distributed hypermedia system
-network based content development system
-uses multimedia resources as a means of navigation or illustration
-current generation of the Web
-provides opportunities to collaborate, interface, and create new content using blogs, Wikis, and podcasts
What are some issues with Web distribution?
-dead links (also known as broken links)
-information posted on the Web is not validated
-information overload due to too much data
Most popular Web browsers
1. Internet Explorer 54%
2. Firefox 33%
3. Chrome 7%
4. Safari 4%
5. Opera 1%
6. Other 1%
What are "plug-ins"
-additional software programs to extend the ability of the browser
adobe reader, flash player, shockwave player
windows media player
Stores Web page files and graphics on a computer hard drive when the user visits a site for the first time
-Web sites and their associated information are stored here
-used to recognize information requests, and send the requested documents
Internet Protocol (IP) address
-Every device connected to the Internet, including PCs and servers, is given a unique network identifier
-numerical identification and logical address
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Identifies Internet resource's type and location
What information does a complete URL consist?
A complete URL is made up of:
1. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
2. Domain name
4. Resource name
How do you "surf the Web"
-Type a URL into the address bar
-Click a tab in the browser window
-Click a hyperlink
What is the "history list"
complies a list of the Web pages visited
What are the "favorites and bookmarks feature"
allows Web pages visited often to be marked
What is "downloading"
Process of transferring a file or document from one computer to user's computer
- them to me
What is "uploading"
Process of transferring a file or document from user's computer to another
- me to them
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
Connection to a Web site that allows users to receive constant updates
-files/feeds that contain information about the aggregator
Regularly checks each site on your subscriptions list and sends alerts if new information has been published
-short for the Hawaiian word for fast, wikipedia
-Simple Web page where any visitor can post text or images, change posted information, and track earlier change
-short for weblog
-Internet equivalent of a journal or diary where bloggers post opinions, thoughts, and interesting links
Audio, image, or video files released by Web syndication
-automatically identify and retrieve new files in a given series and make them available
-Examples: iTunes or Winamp
Web pages grouped under specific headings - offered by some search engines (Yahoo)
Web page that acts as a gateway to diverse sources and presents them in an organized way (Yahoo.com)
Trail of Web links followed to arrive at a particular site (every link you click on is tracked)
Index databases of Web pages to enable fast information searches
Programs used by Search Engines that roam the Web to add new Web pages to search engine indexes
Results from hyperlinks that no longer work or Web pages that have been removed or restructured
What is the most popular search engine?
Specialized search engines
Index information, such as job advertisements, and names and addresses
Perform complete searches
Place quotation marks around a phrase to create a complete unit for search purposes
-the result: search engines retrieve only those sites that contain the exact phrase
Used so only Web pages including those criteria are retrieved
-adding (+) sign
Used so only Web pages excluding those criteria are retrieved
-adding (-) sign
Link search words using logical operators such as AND, OR, and NOT - this provides additional criteria for a search engine to use when retrieving documents
A Boolean search operator that uses parentheses
-the search engine evaluates the expression from left to right, and searches for content in the parentheses first
How do you evaluate information obtained by the Web?
-Who is the author?
-Does the author reference sources?
-Who is the Web page affiliated with? who pays for it?
-Is the language objective/dispassionate or strident/argumentative?
-What is the purpose of the page?
-Does the information appear to be accurate?
-Is the page current?
How to effectively use Web information for schoolwork
-Access authoritative online sources
-Locate published works
-Provide appropriate online and offline reference citations in your work
Set of standards or protocols that identify how computers communicate through the internet
Electronic mail (e-mail)
Type of application software that makes sending and receiving messages through the computer networks possible
Computer file included with an e-mail message
Unique cyberspace address for each individual
-consists of a user name, the name of the hosting e-mail service, and the top-level domain
Unsolicited e-mails, usually from advertisers
-Do no open spam
Malicious software that places a computer in the spammer's control
Gathers data from a system without knowledge
Set of infected computers that places computers under the control of a "bot herder
Instant Messaging (IM) systems
Allow immediate, real-time communication with contacts
-requires additional software
-notifies users when a contact is connected to the Internet
Spam for instant messaging
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Special type of Internet service that gives users the ability to join chat groups called "channels"
Helps people connect
-sites such as MySpace provide the ability to create large communities online
Worldwide discussion system available through the Internet
-made up of many "newsgroups"-discussion groups dedicated to one topic
-discussions within newsgroups are in "threads"-groupings of commentaries on a particular subject
Similar to a newsgroup
easier to use
does not require a newsreader
Electronic Mailing Lists
Similar to newsgroups and forums, except that:
-Only subscribers can receive and view messages
-Messages posted to the mailing list are automatically sent to everyone on the list
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
-Users can speak to others over a broadband Internet connection instead of an analog phone line
-Requires broadband Internet connection
-A VoIP service provider such as Skype
-A VoIP adapter or computer with supporting software
-Calls are usually free to others using the same service
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
-Method to transfer calls over the Internet
-Use when files are too large to attach to e-mails
-Usually requires a user name and a password
-Use to upload Web pages
Anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
-Files are available publicly for download
-Lack of security
-Do not send sensitive material
Conducting business lines through the use of networks or the Internet
E-tailors (Web-based retailers)
Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce
Refers to a business providing supplies to other businesses via the Internet
Consumer-to-comsumer (C2C) e-commerce
Refers to the exchange of business between individuals (Ebay)
Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce
Refers to shopping online rather than at a physical store
-Shop for good deals
-Use shopping portals to compare prices and products: for example "pricegrabber.com"
-look for coupons and rebates
The dot.com phenomenon
-E-commerce primarily uses Web sites with a .com suffix
-Period between 1995-2000= the .com boom
-Crashed in 2000
-Amazon.com is a profitable company
Drawbacks to B2C e-commerce
-Buyers miss speaking with real sales clerks
-Buyers cannot touch merchandise before purchase
-Buyers have to wait for delivery of merchandise
Online e-commerce solutions to drawbacks
-Online chats with live customer service representatives
-Provide a wide variety of shopping options
-Provide good customer service by responding quickly to customer inquiries
Building your own e-commerce business
-Only needs a low capital investment
-Requires an ISP, a Web site, and the ability to ship purchases
Other benefits to e-commerce
-Make travel reservations
-Online stock trading
-Non retail services, such as health, news, and dating services
Series of guidelines for good manners when using an Internet service
Angry messages sent by other users