Terms in this set (70)
the philosophical proposition that events in history were determined by a series of occurrences previous to the event.
an approach to history that uses objective observations and data to explain why things happen
How is Pangloss's Philosophy positivist?
he believes that everything that happens for his good, no matter what or how -- it contributes to his overall well-being
Examples of Pangloss's positivism
Syphilis - chocolate
Bay of Lisbon - form for Jacques to drown in
We wear glasses - because our noses were made to wear them
We eat pork year-round - because pigs were meant to be eaten
Earthquake here - that same earthquake won't hit somewhere else
Why is Candide kicked out of the castle?
Kissed Miss Cunégonde. He's not a socially acceptable suitor for her
Why describe army as Bulgars?
Prussian army of Frederick the Great. French term bougre (bugger).
Why did both sides celebrate Te Deums?
They both claimed victory
How is Candide treated in Holland?
Bad for not hating the pope
Who helps Candide in Holland?
Jacques, the Anabaptist
Why choose an Anabaptist to help Candide?
Anabaptists believe in a literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount. Although Jacques had a pessimistic attitude towards human existence he wouldn't not help Candide.
Who does Candide encounter in Holland?
From what does Pangloss suffer?
How does Pangloss make sense of the world?
Everything happens for the best because they live in the best of all possible worlds
What happens to Jacques?
Drowns after saving a sailor
Why is Jacques death ironic?
He dies because the sailor he saves doesn't help him
Also he dies in water, Anabaptists believe in adult baptism
Why choose an earthquake?
?? It was natural, something that could not be controlled ??
How do Pangloss and Candide explain the Lisbon earthquake to make it fit with their worldviews?
There was a similar earthquake in the Americas...there must be a connection through fault lines
How does the sailor deal with the earthquake?
He plunders among the wreckage, gets drunk, and lies with a prostitute
What is an auto-da-fé?
"Act of faith" in Portuguese - ceremony where they burned heretics
Who is hanged in the Inquisition proceedings?
Who takes care of Candide after the Inquisition proceedings?
An old woman
Who does Candide meet up with after the Inquisition proceedings?
Summarize how Cunégonde made it to Portugal
Bulgars attacked, raped Cunégonde and stabbed her. Another soldier took Cunégonde, treated her wound and made her a POW to serve him. This soldier sold her to Dan Issacher who trades in Holland and Portugal
Who helps Candide and Cunégonde escape?
The old woman tells Candide where 3 horses are - they take them to Cadiz
General attitudes of group as they sail to the New World
Candide = optimistic, Cunégonde = not so optimistic, but trusts Candide, Old woman = tells them both to quit complaining
Group's attitude = Positivism?
No. They are basing things off of ideological evidences not empirical evidence
What led the Old Woman to her current situation?
Her fiance was killed at her wedding, she and her mother were raped and sold as slaves by pirates, she escaped during a Moroccan civil war and was then sold again by an Italian eunuch.
Who was the Old Woman?
The daughter of Pope Urban X and Princess of Palestrina
Who is the castrati and how does he treat the princess?
He was the musician at her mother's chapel. He tries to rape her and then sells her to the Dey of Algiers
Voltaire's views on nobility?
arrogant, proud, -- the Lord's use of his entire long name...hiding behind titles and undeserved money and power
Old Woman's advice on the marriage proposal
Accept because the governor has lots of money
How are the Jesuits depicted?
They are hated and depicted as no-goods
Why does Voltaire hate the Jesuits?
He was educated by them
Who does the Commander of the Jesuits in Paraguay turn out to be?
Cunégonde's brother, the Baron
Why does Candide kill the two monkeys?
They were pursuing two girls. Candide felt redeemed for doing this good after having killed Cunégonde's brother
He is a South American native. Serves as a slave/interpreter/companion for Candide. He's pretty culturally aware and optimistic. He likes Candide.
How does Voltaire describe the Big Lugs?
Nude, armed, and they hate Jesuits
How does Candide explain his release from the Big Lugs?
Because he killed Cunégonde's brother the Jesuit, they let him go
Candide's descriptions of Eldorado
The useful combined with the pleasing. Lots of gold, emeralds, and rubies. Roads used by carriages carrying beautiful people.
Candide's views on Eldorado, new views on Westphalia
Eldorado must be where all is well
Experience has led him to believe that all was for the worst in Westphalia
Why might the wisest princes in Eldorado never leave their native land?
They are protected by mountains and precipices. Everyone agrees and they have to persecution
Why do Cacambo and Candide decide to leave Eldorado?
They now are rich and they want their women
Where will Cacambo and Candide reunite?
Why does Candide choose Martin as a shipmate?
Martin is a scholar - no profession on earth with which a man could be more disgusted
After all of his misery, why does Candide still subscribe to Pangloss's philosophy that this must be the best of all possible worlds?
Candide's love for Cunégonde and the money now in his pockets keeps his faith alive
What is a Manichee
A heresy - good and evil contend for master of the universe
Martin's comments AND Matt. 5:45
Both acknowledge that good and bad happen to both good and bad people. Martin, however, attribute that bad that happens to the wicked as coming from God and the bad that happens to the righteous as coming from the Devil
Why might Martin be more cynical about human nature than Candide?
He did not grow up on Pangloss's teachings. Instead he was shaped by his difficult lot in life
Candide asserts that the freedom of the will is the distinguishing characteristic between mankind and all other beings
Lehi, in the BOM, teaches that men are to act and not be acted upon. I agree that our free will separates us from other creatures and allows us to learn and grow more like God.
Why did Martin get well when he was poor, but Candide stays sick when he's rich?
Martin was left alone and just rested. Candide is surrounded by false friends who are just around for his money, trying to get him to mention them in his will
How does the marquise manage to get the two diamonds from Candide's fingers?
She seduces Candide and slips them off nonchalantly
How does the abbé double-cross Candide?
He fakes a letter from Cunégonde asking for Candide to come help pay for her to recover from an illness. The abbé then accuses Candide of acting suspicious
People in England crazy like those in France?
They killed admirals to encourage the other soldiers to fight harder and be more loyal. Both France and England were fighting over "a few acres of snow in Canada.
How does Candide's philosophy/world-view change according to his circumstances?
He begins to favor Martin's view of the world. He can't find Cunégonde and becomes depressed
Why is Pococurante bored with his luxurious lifestyle?
He was never into the arts, he only pretended. He is now tired of pretending and does not even try to show interest in those things.
Despite Pococurante's negative attitude about everything, what does Candide think of him?
He thinks he's a superior man. Nothing can please him.
Where is Cunégonde and what is her role?
Constantinople. She's a slave.
Whom does Candide encounter as galley slaves en route to meet Cunégonde?
The Baron and Pangloss
How does Voltaire portray the Jewish diamond broker?
Searing by Abraham that he couldn't pay more...he's ripping him off.
How did the Baron become a galley slave?
He healed from the stabbing and was sent to jail. He returned to Rome to continue his Jesuit duties. He was caught bathing with a Muslim man and was sent to the galleys.
How did Pangloss become a galley slave?
The noose was made poorly and didn't kill him. When the surgeon cut into him, it woke him up. He went to Constantinople and was arrested for taking too long to return a bouquet of flowers that a girl dropped
How does Pangloss interpret and explain his misfortunes and experiences?
He sticks to his theory that it's for the best in this, the best of all worlds
What is the Baron's respons to Candide's desire to marry Cunégonde?
No. She will only marry a Baron.
Why the anti-Semitism in the novel?
Judaism was illegal in France and anti-semitism was pretty wide-spread in Europe
What is Martin's Philosophy and how does it differ from Pangloss's?
Martin's philosophy is subject to experience. His views on theology are shaped through his experiences. Pangloss views his experiences through his theology.
What response does Dervish give to Pangloss and his group's questions?
He asks why he should care and even bother getting involved in with that
What wisdom does the good Old Man impart to the group?
Work keeps away 3 great evils: boredom, vice, and indigence.
What does Voltaire mean by the need to "cultivate our own garden?"
We are all to work and be profitable in our own areas
Is this a serious book? Why?
Yes and no. Although it is filled with humor, Voltaire uses this humor to poke fun and point out weaknesses and flaws in groups of people and certain ideas of the time
What does Voltaire tell us about man's ability to deal with adversity?
We all do it differently and it can make/break us