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Chapter 1 Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Pathogen invades body

Parasitic Diseases

Parasite invades body and harms host (body)

Code Range for Infectious Diseases & Parasitic Diseases

* Organized by Organism Type & Body Site

4 Classifications of Organisms

1. Bacteria
2. Funci
3. Parasites
4. Viruses


- One Celled Organisms - named by shape & arrangements

Common Sites for Bacterial Infection

- Bloodstream
- Skin
- Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinary tracts
**Specific organism can cause disease in different body sites... coder must note the type of organism and body site when coding.

Culture and Sensitivity Tes (C&S)

- Ordered by physician to diagnose specific bacterial organism causing bacterial infection
- Identifies antibiotic to use to treat

Bacteria are named by:

Shape and arrangement
- Cocci = round
- Bacilli = straight rod
- Sprilla = Sprial, corkscrew, curved
- Diplo = Pairs
- Strepto = chains
- Staphylo = clusters


microscopic plant life that lack chlorophyll and must have a source of matter for nutrition because they cant manufacture their own food. Two common forms that affect Humans:
1. Molds
2. Yeast

Yeast Infections

Caused by an unicellular fungi that reproduce by budding


cause by long filament-shaped fungi.

Opportunistic Parasites

Fungi, (yeasts and molds) that affect human tissues

Opportunistic Infections

Opportunistic parasites attack weakened immune systems and cause Opportunistic Infections in their host.

Opportunistic Infections most commonly occur in:

- Pts. w/ chronic conditions like AIDS, diabetes, cancer
- Infants & newborns
- Patients who are postsurgery
- Steroid users

Common yeasts and molds affecting humans

Athlete's foot (tinea pdis)
Thrush (candida albicans) mouth
Ringworm (tinea capitis)
Chicago disease (blastomyces dermatitidis)


one celled organisms that live on living matter and are classified by the way they move... Parasitic Infections found in:
- intestinal tract, bloodstream, lymph nodes, central nervous sytem, & skin.


Organisms that include flatworms, roundworms and flukes


organisms that include insects, ticks, spiders and mites.

Parasitic Infections

found in intestinal tract, bloodstream lymph nodes, central nervous system.
- Tapeworm - attach to body & cause disorders... uses hooks & suckers to attach to intestinal wall of its host.
- Malarial Parasites - in red blood cells


smallest of infectious pathogens
- penetrate cells and release their DNA or RNA into the nucleus of a cell, causing damage to the human cell.

Common Viral Diseases

- Shingles (herpes zoster)
- Chickenpox (varicella)
- AIDS (Human immunodeficiency Virus)
- Genital herpes (herpes simplex)
- German Measles ( RNA virus)
- West Nile Fever ( Flavivirus)

Coding of Parasitic Diseases in ICD-9-CM

Coded in 1 of 3 ways:
1. Single Code Assignment
2. Combination Code Assignment
3. Dual Code Assignment

Single Code Assignment

Only 1 code needed to code diagnostic statement

Combination Code Assignment

Used when a single code is used to identify organism AND condition caused by organism.
- 1st reference term in Alpha Index
- 2nd Verify in Tabular list
i.e. Herpes Simplex w/ Manifestation meningitis 054.79

Dual Code Assignment

2 codes needed to code a diagnostic statement - in Alpha Index 2 codes listed, 1 in brackets indicating it should be listed as 2nd code... List as: Etiology 1st and then Manifestation 2nd in brackets

Conditions with both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestation due to the underlying etiology.

For such conditions it's required the underlying condition be sequenced first, followed by the manifestation.... wherever this exists there is a "use additional code" note at etiology code and "Code first" note at the manifestation code.

Intestinal Infectious Diseases (Category Codes 001-009)

This range of codes includes infections that occur in the stomach, intestines, and colon. The codes are organized according to the type of organisms causing the infection and the site of the infection.

Intestinal Infectious Diseases w/ codes are:

- Cholera (001.0-001.9
- Typhoid & paratyphoid fevers (002.0-002.9)
- Salmonella infections (003-003.9)
Shingellosis (004.0-004.9)
- Bacteria food poisoning (005.0-005.9)
- Ambebiasis (006.0- 006.9)
- Intestinal infections d/t other organisms (008.0-008.9)
**Above display many of same symptoms regardless of type of disao

Signs & Symptoms of Infectious Intestinal Diseases

Nausea, vomiting, Anorixia, Abdominal pain, Fever, Muscular aches, malaise

Clinical Tests for Infectious Intestinal diseases

Blood & stool cultures to identify the type of infectious organisms

Treatment for infectious intestinal diseases

- Antiemetric drug to reduce vomiting
- Antimotility drug to relieve the abdominal pan
- Hydrate orally
- Hydrate thru IV

Tuberculosis (Category Codes 010 - 018)

Tuberculosis is an infection caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that spreads through the body via lymph and blood vessels and most commonly localizes in the lungs.
*** EXCLUDES states Congenital tuberculosis (771.2) and late effects of TB (137.0-137.4) are excluded

Tuberculosis Symptoms

fatigue, weakness, loss of appetitie annd weight, coughing, hemotysis, night sweats, and increased temperature later in the day and evening.

Clinical Tests used to diagnose TB

Chest Xrays
Mantous skin test
Sputem Culter

All codes for Tuberculosis have FIVE digits... fifth digits used are:

0 Unspecified
1 Bacteriological or histological exam not d
2. Bacteriological or histological exam unknown
3 Tubercle bacilli found in sputum by microscopy
4 Tubercle bacilli found by bacterial culture
5 Tubercle bacilli not found, but TB confirmed histologically
6. Tubercle bacilli confirmed by other methods

Zoonotic Bacterial Diseases

(Category Codes 020-027)
bacterial diseases that are transmittedd to humans by contact w/ infected animals, insects, fleas, ticks, or their discharges or products.

Common Zoonotic Bacterial Disease Symptoms

headache, sweating
body aches
***Blood specimens used for diagnosis

Common Zoonotic Bacterial Diseases:

- Anthrax
- Bubonic Plague
- Listeriosis Meningitis
- Mediterranean Fever

Other Bacterial Diseases

category Codes 030-041) classifies a wide range of bacterial diseases. One of most common is Streptococcal sore throat 034.0


generally refers to a systemic disease associated w/ the presence of pathological microorganisms or toxins in the blood, which can include bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms.

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)

Generally refers to the systemic response to infection, trauma/burns, or other insult (such as cancer), with symptoms including fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, and leukocytosis


Generally refers to SIRS due to infection

Severe Sepsis

Generally refers to sepsis with associated acute organ dysfunctions


Category 038
- subdivides into fourth digits that identify specific bacteria


Classified into subcategory code 995.9
- fifth digits to identify specifics

SIRS, unspecified




Severe Sepsis


SIRS due to noninfectious process without acute organ dysfunction


SIRS due to noninfectious process with acute organ dysfunction


Septic Shock d/t Severe Sepsis is coded as:

995.92, 785.52
*For all cases of Septic Shock the code for the systemic infection should be sequenced first, followed by codes 995.92 and 785.52.
Any additional codes should also be assigned.

Septic Shock without documentation of severe sepsis

Septich shock indicates the presence of severe sepsis... Severe sepsis code 995.92, MUST be assigned with code 785.52, Septic Shock!

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Code 040.82
an acute infection, caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria, with an abrupt onset of symptoms... high fever, rash diarrha, vomiting, and myalgia, possible organ failure, hypotension, shock.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ HIV Disease

Code 042
* Code only confirmed cases of HIV
a. patient admitted ofr HIV-related condition - Code 042
b. Pt. w/ HIV disease admitted for unrelated condition - Code unrelated condition as primary and HIV as secondary
c. Whether pt. is newly diagnosed... Encounter for HIV conditions is errelevant to the sequencing decision
d. Asymptomatic HIV - Code V08
e. Pts. w/ inconclusive HIV serology but no definitive dx or manifestations of the illness... may be assigned code 795.71... inconclusive serologic test for HIV
f. Previousely diagnosed HIV-related illness - Code with042.

Encounters for Testing HIV

When coding testing for HIV Coder may use: V73.89

Viral Diseases Generally Accompanied by Exanthem (rash) (Category Codes 050-059)

Common diseases coded to this range include smallpox, chickenpox, herpes zoster, herpes simplex, congenital herpes, measles and rubella. **** When coding in this section coder NEEDS to note any complications so it can be reflected in the code.

Other Diseases d/t Viruses and Chlamydiae (Category Code 979-079)

Category Codes 070-079
- Codes in this section use 4th & 5th digits to identify the organism and manifestations or complications of the disease.
(Viral hepatitis, Rabies, Mumps, Hand, foot and mouth disease, infectious mononucleosis, Viral warts)

Infection Mononucleosis

Signs and Symptoms
Enlarged lymph nods, Fever, Sore Throat, Maliase, Anorexia, Myalgia, Splenomegaly...
Clinical Testing: Elevated WBC & atypical lymphocytes, liver function tests abnormal
Treatment: Steroid therapy; Symptomatic treatment includes OTC pain relievers & warm gargle.

Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis A (HAV) 070-070.1
Hepatitis B (HBV) 070.2 and 070.3
Hepatitis C (HCV) 070.4

Disease highlight - Viral Hepatitis

Category Code 070

Syphyllis and other Venereal Diseases

Category Codes 090-099
Include bacterial and unspecified venereal diseases that are transmitted sexually or transplacentally to a fetus from an infected pregnant woman.

Mycosis (Category Codes 110-118)

This section includes fungal infections that affect various body sites. Instructional note at beginning of section directs coders to use additional codes to identify associated manifestations.

Candidiasis or Moniliasis infections... Category code 112

Fungal infections caused by the fungus Candida which can affect various sites.... ICD-9-CM uses 4th & 5th digits to identify the vaious sites affected by Candida.

Common Candida sites:

Mouth = Thrush 112.0
Vulva and Vagina - Candial or Monilial Vulvovaginitis = 112.1
Skin and Nails - called Candidal onychia = code 112.3

Opportunistic Mycotic Infections... Coded to 118

These infections include a wide variety of fungal infections that occur in a compromised host, typically a patient who has a chronic disease or weakened immune system.

Late Effects of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (Category Codes 137-139)

Late Effects are used to code residual conditions due to a previous disease or injury.
- Code 137 - Late Effects of Tuberculosis
- Code 138 - Late Effects of acute poliomyelitis
- Code 139 - Late Effects of other infectious and parsitic diseases
*** used when a patient has previously had an infection and now has a residual condition due to the infection. Code for the residual is listed FIRST, and the late effect code is listed second.
i.e. Constrictive Pericarditis as residual condition...History of Tuberculosis.... code 423.2 for constrictive pericarditis first...

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