138 terms

Ecology 2

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Terms in this set (...)

B
______________ is/are defined as a group of potentially breeding organisms within a species in a given space and time.

A) Density

B) Populations

C) Distribution

D) Abundance

E) Community
E
Which of the following are characteristics of a population?

A) consists of a single species

B) has an age distribution

C) has a birth rate

has an emigration rate

All of the choices are correct.
B
In order to determine whether a species is common or rare, ecologists use all of the following criteria except:

A) habitat tolerance.

B) evolutionary existence.

C) geographical range.

D) local population size.

E) None of the choices are correct.
C
Within a population, if the average is selected for and the two opposing extremes are selected against, this is an example of

A) directional selection.

B) disruptive selection.

C) stabilizing selection.

D) natural selection.

E) balanced polymorphism.
D
Evolution can be defined as

A) a process which favors the average phenotype within a population.

B) a process that increases the average size of individuals within a population.

C) a process of eliminating "bad" traits within a population.

D) a change in gene frequencies in a population.

E) the extent to which phenotypic variation is due to genetic variation.
D
Which of the following cannot be determined using a fecundity schedule combined with a life table?

A) per capita rate of increase

B) net reproductive rate

C) mean generation time

D) dispersal rates

E) geometric rate of increase
D
The __________ defines the physical conditions under which a species might live, in the absence of interaction with other species.

A) functional niche

B) realized niche

C) principle niche

D) fundamental niche

E) primary niche
C
The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that

A) genotypic changes will result in phenotypic changes.

B) phenotypic changes will result in genotypic changes.

C) allelic frequencies within a population will not change unless certain conditions are met.

D) allelic frequencies within a population will change unless certain conditions are met.

E) None of the choices are correct.
B
An annual plant when initially colonizing an area will probably demonstrate

A) annual growth rate.

B) geometric population growth.

C) exponential growth rate.

D) logistic growth.

E) None of the choices are correct.
C
All of the following conditions are included in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle except:

A) no mutation.

B) large population size.

C) non-random mating.

D) no immigration.

E) genotypes of equal fitness.
C
Humans would best be represented by which of the following survivorships curves?

A) III

B) II

C) I

D) IV

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
'Rarity I' can be described as:

A) restricted range, narrow habitat tolerances, small local populations

B) restricted range, broad habitat tolerances, large local populations

C) extensive range, narrow habitat tolerances, large local populations

D) restricted range, broad habitat tolerances, small local populations

E) extensive range, broad habitat tolerances, small local populations
A
Nt = N0 λt represents

A) geometric population growth.

B) annual growth rate.

C) exponential growth rate.

D) logistic growth.

E) None of the choices are correct.
A
Type I survivorship curve indicates

A) low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

B) high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

C) low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

D) high juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

E) equal chance of dying at any age.
A
Which of the following word pairs are mismatched?

A) random distribution; aggressive interaction

B) clumped distribution; attraction to a common source

C) regular distribution; antagonistic behaviors

D) large scale distribution; substantial environmental changes

E) small scale distribution; insignificant environmental changes
C
Density is defined as

A) the number of individuals within a population.

B) abundance.

C) the number of individuals per unit area.

D) the distribution of individuals within a given area.

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
Research on North American bird populations have indicated that populations are _____________, distributed on a __________________ scale.

A) clumped; small

B) random; small

C) regular; small

D) regular; large

E) clumped; large
E
The exponential population growth equation can be used for

A) populations with overlapping generations.

B) populations experiencing continuous growth.

C) populations with nonpulsed reproduction.

D) both populations with overlapping generations and populations experiencing continuous growth.

E) both populations with overlapping generations, populations experiencing continuous growth, and populations with nonpulsed reproduction.
C
'Rarity II' can be described as

A) restricted range, narrow habitat tolerances, and small local populations.

B) restricted range, broad habitat tolerances, and large local populations.

C) extensive range, narrow habitat tolerances, and large local populations.

D) restricted range, broad habitat tolerances, and small local populations.

E) extensive range, broad habitat tolerances, and small local populations.
A
If the age distribution diagram is bell shaped or the number of individual in each age class is evenly distributed, this indicates that the population is

A) stable.

B) declining.

C) growing slowly.

D) growing rapidly.

E) not able to be determined.
E
Type II survivorship curve indicates

A) low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

B) high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

C) low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

D) high juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

E) equal chance of dying at any age.
C
Whittaker's research on North American tree distribution examined ____________ gradients and concluded that the tree distribution was __________________.

A) temperature; random

B) temperature; clumped

C) moisture; clumped

D) moisture; random

E) soil; random
A
Caughly's research on the distribution of three different species of Australian kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, M. fuliginosus, and M. rufus) suggests the

A) physical environment limits the distribution of the kangaroos.

B) topography limits the distribution of the kangaroos.

C) amount of rainfall limits the distribution of the kangaroos.

D) temperature limits the distribution of the kangaroos.

E) None of the choices are correct.
D
If the age distribution diagram is bottom heavy or pyramidal in shape, this indicates that the population is

A) stable.

B) declining.

C) growing slowly.

D) growing rapidly.

E) cannot be determined
B
For thousands of years, humans have bred domesticated plants and animals to produce and maintain desirable traits, such as large fruits. Darwin used which term to describe this:

A) mutation.

B) artificial selection.

C) phenotypic plasticity.

D) genetic engineering.

E) natural selection.
E
Which statement about organisms' "niches" is false?

A) The niche summarizes environmental factors influencing growth, survival, and reproduction of a species.

B) The niche concept was developed by Joseph Grinnell and Charles Elton.

C) The "fundamental" niche refers to physical, but not biological, aspects of the environment.

D) Interactions such as competition and parasitism may restrict the size of an organism's niche.

E) In the laboratory, two species with identical niches are especially easy to maintain in a mixed culture.
B
Type III survivorship curve indicates

A) low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

B) high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

C) low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

D) high juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

E) equal chance of dying at any age.
E
Evolution results from

A) mutations.

B) natural selection.

C) genetic drift.

D) gene flow.

E) All of the choices are correct.
A
Darwin is often considered the father of evolutionary thought. Which of the following terms is/are not part of Darwin's analysis?

A) gene frequencies

B) natural selection

C) adaptation

D) fitness

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
Adaptation to the environment by a population does not include

A) variation in characteristics among individuals in a population.

B) evolution.

C) improved ability to live in the environment.

D) anatomy, physiology, and behavior.

E) None of the choices are correct.
D
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation:

A) q2 - qp + p2 = 1.0

B) 2pq - q2 - 2p = 1.0

C) q2 - qp2 + p = 1.0

D) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0

E) p2 + pq + q2 = 1.0
E
Which of the following are conditions necessary to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A) no mutations

B) large population

C) equal fitness

D) random mating

E) All of the choices are correct.
E
The factors that determine carrying capacity include all of the following except:

A) space.

B) disease.

C) food.

D) competition.

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
The factors that determine carrying capacity include all of the following except:

A) space.

B) disease.

C) food.

D) competition.

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
The age distribution of a population can reveal

A) growth potential.

B) survivorship.

C) reproduction.

D) both growth potential and survivorship.

E) growth potential, survivorship, and reproduction.
D
Which of the following equations best represents the geometric rate of increase?

A) r = T/(ln R0)

B) r = (ln R0)/T

C) λ = Nt/( Nt+1)

D) λ = (Nt+1)/Nt

E) None of the choices are correct.
D
dN/dt = rmaxN [(K - N)/K] represents

A) annual growth rate.

B) geometric population growth.

C) exponential growth rate.

D) logistic growth.

E) None of the choices are correct.
D
Density dependent factors include all of the following except:

A) competition.

B) disease.

C) predation.

D) temperature.

E) None of the choices are correct.
A
In a population of lizards, the average and long length tails are selected against and the short tails are selected for. This is an example of

A) directional selection.

B) disruptive selection.

C) stabilizing selection.

D) natural selection.

E) balanced polymorphism.
C
Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) Population growth in humans can be represented by an S curve.

B) The human population has reached carry capacity.

C) Population growth in humans is exponential.

D) Human population growth is not effected by density dependent factors.

E) Both population growth in humans can be represented by an S curve and the human population has reached carry capacity.
B
For a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in a situation where there are only two alleles at a particular locus, the proportions of genotypes are: SS = 0.64, Ss = 0.32, and ss = 0.04. Calculate the allele frequency for the recessive allele.

A) 0.04

B) 0.2

C) 0.32

D) 0.64

E) 0.8
C
Over time, average phenotypes become less common and the population becomes phenotypically more diverse as a result of _____________ selection.

A) bimodal

B) directional

C) disruptive

D) stabilizing

E) disjointed
E
A group of subpopulations living in spatially isolated patches connected by exchange of individuals among patches is called a(n)

A) micropopulation.

B) megapopulation.

C) isopopulation.

D) allopopulation.

E) metapopulation.
A
Which of the following are mismatched?

A) nx : mortality rate

B) lx : survivorship history

C) R0 : net reproductive rate

D) mx : average number offspring per individual

E) x : age/time interval
B
In a population of birds, the average beak size is selected against and the large and small sized beaks are selected for. This is an example of

A) directional selection.

B) disruptive selection.

C) stabilizing selection.

D) natural selection.

E) balanced polymorphism.
B
Organisms that produce many offspring would best be characterized by which of the following?

A) a convex survivorship curve

B) a concave survivorship curve

C) a linear survivorship curve

D) a sigmoidal survivorship curve

E) None of the choices are correct.
Synecology
Study of groups of organisms in relation to their environment, community ecology.
Autecology
Study of adaptations and behavior of individual species or populations in relation to their environment.
Biotic potential
The rate at which a population of a species will increase when there are no limits on its rate of growth.
Sigmoidal population growth
As N approaches K (Carring compacity) growth slows.
Deterministic extinction
Comes about from some change with no chance of escape.
Stochastic extinction
Normal random changes to a population that cause its extinction.
E
"Riparian" refers to plant communities occurring

A) in the tropics.

B) at high altitudes.

C) along the edges of deserts.

D) in permanently flooded areas.

E) in transitions between riverbanks and upland areas.
D
Plagiorhynchus worms and Puccinia rusts are parasites that share the ability to change their host's behavior in way that

A) increase the length of time they can survive in their hosts.

B) decrease their host's mortality rates.

C) increase their hosts reproduction, thereby increasing production of parasite-infected offspring.

D) increase the likelihood of their (the parasites') transmission to a new host.

E) decrease the hosts' vulnerability to other parasites.
B
Periodical cicadas spend 13 or 17 years

A) feeding in tree twigs before emerging as adults.

B) feeding on tree roots before emerging as adults.

C) as adults before laying eggs.

D) in a resistant, resting egg before hatching as larvae.

E) None of the choices are correct.
A
Grime's classification of plant life histories focuses attention on

A) stress and disturbance.

B) stress and nutrient availability.

C) disturbance and gene flow.

D) disturbance and plant species diversity.

E) r- vs. K-selection.
C
The "K" in "K-selection" comes from the

A) ecologist who coined it, Astrid Kodric-Brown.

B) shape of the age-vs.-mortality-rate plot for K-selected species.

C) "K" in the logistic growth equation.

D) Greek letter "kappa," symbolizing fecundity.

E) None of the choices are correct.
C
In the Lotka-Volterra predation model, a predator population in the absence of prey (hosts) would

A) grow exponentially.

B) grow logistically.

C) decline as predators die.

D) decline at first, but then increase as predators switch to other modes of feeding.

E) decline at first, but then reach a small equilibrium population size.
D
Mycorrhizal fungi (directly) help their plant partners acquire

A) sugars.

B) sunlight.

C) seed dispersal.

D) soil nutrients.

E) pollination.
E
__________ show more variation in life history traits than any other group.

A) All of the choices show equal amounts of variation in life history traits.

B) Mammals

C) Birds

D) Reptiles

E) Fish
A
The principle of allocation states

A) if an organism uses energy for one function it reduces the amount of energy available for other functions.

B) organisms have a tendency to select the smallest prey available rather than exert more energy in capturing larger prey.

C) organisms that build larger nests produce fewer offspring.

D) organisms have a tendency to allocate more time and energy to a single preferred offspring while neglecting others.

E) plants allocate their energy such that larger seedlings come from smaller seeds.
E
A calculated range of values that we estimate contains the true mean of a population with a known degree of certainty is called a

A) standard error.

B) standard deviation.

C) median.

D) Students t-value.

E) confidence interval.
A
The presence of parasitic protozoa in a culture of competing Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum

A) can reverse the outcome of competition.

B) decreases the likelihood of coexistence.

C) has no effect on the outcome of competition.

D) increases the likelihood of coexistence.

E) has an effect on the outcome of competition only in the presence of predatory birds.
D
Because natural selection has shaped fish life histories,

A) fish species with high adult mortality tend to mature at a younger age.

B) fish species with high adult mortality tend to mature at an older age.

C) fish species with high adult mortality tend to invest relatively large amounts of energy in reproduction.

D) Both fish species with high adult mortality tend to mature at a younger age and fish species with high adult mortality tend to invest relatively large amounts of energy in reproduction are true.

E) Both fish species with high adult mortality tend to mature at an older age and fish species with high adult mortality tend to invest relatively large amounts of energy in reproduction are true.
D
In plants, "self-thinning" refers to reduction in

A) the biomass of an individual in response to competition.

B) the total biomass of a population in response to competition.

C) both population density and population biomass in response to competition.

D) population density in response to competition, as population biomass increases.

E) population density due to grazing by herbivores.
D
The enlarged thorns of swollen thorn acacias provide ants with

A) a source of sugar.

B) a source of protein.

C) a source of fats.

D) living space.

E) a habitat for their prey species.
B
The standard error of the mean is equal to

A) the sample variance divided by the sample size.

B) the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size.

C) the sample variance divided by the square root of the sample size.

D) twice the square root of the sample size.

E) twice the square root of the sample variance.
A
Nutrient poor soils should favor mycorrhizal fungi that are

A) less aggressive at obtaining sugars from their plant host.

B) more aggressive at obtaining sugars from their plant host.

C) more efficient at extracting inorganic nutrients from soil.

D) more efficient at extracting sugars from soil.

E) more efficient at extracting inorganic nutrients from plant root exudates.
C
Among fish species, an "opportunistic" life history is characterized by

A) high juvenile survival, large numbers of offspring, and early maturity.

B) high juvenile survival, large numbers of offspring, and late maturity.

C) low juvenile survival, low number of offspring, and early maturity.

D) traits that maximize colonizing ability for environments that do not vary much in time or space.

E) traits that maximize colonizing ability for environments that are very stressful.
B
Which of the following observations can be explained by the energetic limitation of an organism's total reproductive effort?

A) Darter diversity is very high in the Ozark Highlands.

B) Darters that lay many eggs lay smaller eggs, on average.

C) Seed size in plants varies over at least 10 orders of magnitude.

D) Seed size in plants depends in part on the plant's seed dispersal mechanism.

E) More than one of the choices.
B
In the Lotka-Volterra model, the rate of predation is represented by

A) c.

B) p.

C) cp.

D) dpNp

E) dp
C
Which statement about the impact of dams on cottonwood forests is false?

A) Damming reduces growth of established cottonwoods downstream.

B) Damming increases mortality of established cottonwoods downstream.

C) By reducing flooding downstream, damming improves cottonwood seed germination.

D) The timing of water release from a dam can greatly affect cottonwood seed germination.

E) Careful management of flow through dams can greatly reduce harmful impacts on cottonwoods downstream.
C
Calculate standard error given: mm, s = 6.2 mm, and n = 10.

A) 0.62 mm

B) 0.88 mm

C) 1.96 mm

D) 9.06 mm

E) 17.8 mm
A
A fish maturing late with large body size and producing many small offspring would be said to have a(n)

A) periodic life history.

B) opportunistic life history.

C) equilibrium life history.

D) precocial life history.

E) stress-tolerant life history.
B
Ecologists sometimes use __________________ as simpler representations of the complex natural world.

A) character displacement

B) mathematical or laboratory models

C) competition coefficients

D) replication

E) None of the choices are correct.
C
When the average mass of individual plants in a stand is plotted against stand density (log-transformed), the slope of the relationship is very often around

A) -1/2.

B) -1.

C) -3/2.

D) +1/2.

E) +3/2.
E
Which of the following is a result of infection of Arabis by the plant parasite Puccinia monoica?

A) formation of an elongated rosette topped by a cluster of bright yellow leaves

B) formation of a pseudoflower that resembles the flower of a buttercup

C) insect transfer of spermatia from one fungus to another

D) elimination of seed formation by the host plant

E) All of the choices are correct.
A
The major benefit obtained by aspen sunflower, Helianthella quinquenervis, from its ant mutualists is

A) reduced losses of seeds to seed predators.

B) reduced loss of leaf tissue to herbivorous insects.

C) more efficient extraction of soil nutrients.

D) more rapid growth early in the growing season.

E) improved attraction of pollinators.
D
Which of the following statements about damselfish on Jamaican reefs is false?

A) Damselfish engage in both intraspecific and interspecific competition.

B) Damselfish compete for territories they use for feeding.

C) Damselfish attack intruders threatening their young.

D) Damselfish without territories die.

E) Competition in damselfish is "interference" competition.
B
Crabs and shrimp associated with corals protect their hosts from

A) being dislodged from the substrate by currents.

B) predation by sea-stars.

C) predation by fishes.

D) attack by parasitic nematodes.

E) infection by pathogenic bacteria.
B
The interaction between honeyguide birds and the Boran people of Kenya

A) is an obligate mutualism.

B) is a facultative mutualism.

C) is exploitative, with humans benefiting but honeyguides exploited.

D) represents the only way a honeyguide can gain access to a beehive.

E) depends only on humans following birds, not on active communication by the birds.
B
Which of the following is not an example of altered behavior of the pill bug, Armadillidum vulgare, when infected by the parasite, Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus?

A) spends less time in sheltered areas

B) positive phototaxis

C) spends more time in low humidity environments

D) seeks out light substrates

E) all are examples of altered behavior of the pill bug when infected by the parasite
B
As a fraction of adult mass, the mass of offspring at independence tends to be largest in

A) mammals.

B) altricial birds.

C) lizards.

D) both mammals and lizards.

E) All three groups have similar values.
E
Which of the following environments for germinating seed is most likely to favor a plant species that makes many small seeds, compared to one that makes fewer larger seeds?

A) nutrient limitation

B) competition from established plants

C) shade

D) deep burial in soil

E) disturbance
D
Raine, Willmer, and Stone demonstrated that protection and pollination mutualism do not come into conflict on the swollen thorn acacia, Acacia hindsii, because

A) there is spatial separation of inflorescences and resources used by guarding ants.

B) A. hindsii inflorescences lack nectar.

C) A. hindsii inflorescences contain a chemical ant repellent.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) Both A and B are correct.
C
Joseph Connell discovered that Balanus barnacles were excluded from the upper intertidal zone by ____________, while Chthalamus barnacles were excluded from the middle intertidal zone by ___________.

A) competition from mussels, prolonged immersion in water

B) competition from mussels, competition with Balanus

C) prolonged exposure to air, competition with Balanus

D) prolonged exposure to air, competition with algae

E) predation by wading birds, predation by starfish
D
The major benefit obtained by zooxanthellae algal cells from their coral host is

A) protection from herbivores.

B) sugars.

C) phosphorus from coral wastes.

D) nitrogen from coral wastes.

E) temperature regulation.
D
An interaction between individuals of different species that benefit both partners is called

A) commensalism.

B) predation.

C) exploitation.

D) mutualism.

E) ammensalism.
E
Self-thinning in a stand of trees

A) increases biomass per individual.

B) decreases stand density.

C) results in death of less competitive individuals.

D) is a result of intraspecific competition.

E) All of the choices are correct.
A
Mycorrhizal fungi acquire _________ from their plant partners.

A) sugars

B) soil nutrients

C) proteins and lipids

D) growth hormones

E) protection from consumers
E
Two species occurring together in the same place are said to be

A) competitors.

B) precocial.

C) mutualists.

D) allopatric.

E) sympatric.
B
Analysis of the Lotka-Volterra competition model implies that two competitors can coexist only when

A) interspecific competition is stronger than intraspecific competition.

B) intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition.

C) intraspecific and interspecific competition are equally strong.

D) predation or parasitism is stronger than interspecific competition.

E) Actually, the model implies that two competitors can never coexist.
E
Which of the following is a correct graphical representation of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model?

A) predator and prey numbers are plotted against time producing reciprocal oscillations in predator prey populations

B) predator numbers are plotted against prey numbers producing reciprocal oscillations in predator prey populations

C) predator and prey numbers are plotted against time producing an elliptical oscillation in predator prey numbers

D) predator numbers are plotted against prey numbers producing an elliptical oscillation in predator prey numbers

E) both predator and prey numbers are plotted against time producing reciprocal oscillations in predator prey populations and predator numbers are plotted against prey numbers producing an elliptical oscillation in predator prey numbers
C
Field experiments differ from laboratory experiments in that

A) laboratory experiments include controls, but field experiments need not.

B) field experiments can be more easily replicated than laboratory experiments.

C) laboratory experiments allow variables not of direct interest to be controlled, while in field experiments these typically vary.

D) field experiments can teach us about ecological systems, but laboratory experiments cannot.

E) field experiments are often used by ecologists, but laboratory experiments never are.
D
Competition between members of a single species is called

A) cohort specific competition.

B) species specific competition.

C) interspecific competition.

D) intraspecific competition.

E) interference competition.
A
In the Lotka-Volterra predation model, a prey (host) population in the absence of predators would

A) grow exponentially.

B) grow logistically.

C) grow exponentially, and then crash when it has outstripped its own food supply.

D) decline to extinction.

E) The model makes no assumptions about what happens in the absence of predators.
D
Which statement is not true of lynx and coyote predation of the snowshoe hare?

A) Lynx and coyote both show a strong numerical response to increases in the snowshoe hare population.

B) Lynx show higher predation rates when snowshoe hare numbers are declining.

C) Coyotes show higher predation rates when snowshoe hare numbers are increasing.

D) Coyotes show a clear type 2 functional response to increases in the snowshoe hare population.

E) At high hare densities, coyote and lynx predation rates exceed their daily energy needs.
A
In experiments with the prairie grass Andropogon, root:shoot ratios proved to be

A) higher in plants grown in poor soils.

B) lower in plants grown in poor soils.

C) equal in plants grown in poor and rich soils.

D) higher in plants grown with mycorrhizae.

E) equal in plants grown with and without mycorrhizae.
C
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic favored by K-selection?

A) low intrinsic rate of increase

B) late reproduction

C) many, small offspring

D) repeated bouts of reproduction

E) strong competitive ability
E
A "forb" is a(n)

A) fish species living in the open ocean.

B) bird species having offspring independent at a young age.

C) plant species with woody tissue.

D) grass or sedge.

E) herbaceous, but non-graminoid, plant species.
C
Which aspects of the biology of zooxanthellae are controlled by their coral hosts?

A) their cell wall chemistry

B) their population growth rate when free-living

C) the release of photosynthetic products from their cells

D) the rate at which they absorb sugars from their hosts

E) their mortality rate
B
Ants on the aspen sunflower, Helianthella quinquenervis, obtain sugars and amino acids by

A) collecting nectar from the sunflower's flowers.

B) collecting nectar from extrafloral nectaries.

C) tending aphids that extract plant sap.

D) extracting plant sap directly by piercing the sunflower stem.

E) All of the choices are correct.
D
Ephemerellid mayflies under attack by stoneflies will typically

A) swim away to escape possible predation.

B) rely on their cryptic coloration to escape detection.

C) rely on their spiny appendages to deter attack.

D) adopt a posture which increases their apparent size, so that the predator will avoid them.

E) burrow into the stream bottom.
D
In Thomas Park's experiments with Tribolium beetles, which of the following was true?

A) T. confusum and T. castaneum had identical niches.

B) T. confusum and T. castaneum always coexisted when cultured together.

C) T. confusum and T. castaneum never coexisted when cultured together.

D) T. confusum and T. castaneum could coexist under some environmental conditions, but not all.

E) T. confusum and T. castaneum proved to be unsuitable species for laboratory experimentation.
D
In Kathleen Keeler's cost-benefit model of mutualism, the condition for persistence of mutualists is pwmw + qwmu > wnm. The parameters p and q represent the

A) cost and benefit of the mutualism.

B) fitness of successful and unsuccessful mutualists.

C) frequency of "mutualist" and "nonmutualist" alleles in the population.

D) proportion of successful and unsuccessful mutualists in the population.

E) amount of herbivore protection provided by ant and non-ant defenses.
B
The study of the relationship between climate and the timing of ecological events is called

A) ecology.

B) phenology.

C) oenology.

D) climatology.

E) life history theory
E
A "negatively phototaxic" amphipod will swim

A) away from parasitic worms.

B) towards parasitic worms.

C) away from competing amphipods.

D) towards light.

E) away from light.
C
Which of the following is not a benefit provided by mutualistic crab and shrimp to the Pocillopora coral?

A) protection from predators

B) promotion of the health and integrity of coral tissue

C) source of lipids

D) both protection from predators and source of lipids

E) both promotion of the health and integrity of coral tissue and source of lipids
E
Which of the following does NOT contribute to determining the niche of the salt-marsh grass Spartina anglica?

A) the height of tidal fluctuations

B) the fetch of the estuary

C) latitude

D) temperature

E) rainfall frequency
D
In Grime's classification, stress-tolerant plants

A) live under conditions of high stress and also high disturbance.

B) grow rapidly.

C) are very palatable to herbivores.

D) conserve nutrients and water.

E) All of the choices are correct
A
In mature white pine forests of New Hampshire

A) belowground interspecific competition suppresses the growth of herbaceous plants and hemlocks.

B) belowground interspecific competition suppresses the growth of white pine seedlings.

C) aboveground intraspecific competition suppresses the growth of white pine seedlings.

D) aboveground interspecific competition suppresses the growth of herbaceous plants and hemlocks.

E) belowground intraspecific competition suppresses the growth of herbaceous plants and hemlocks.
D
Gause's laboratory experiments with Paramecium species provided evidence for:

A) character displacement.

B) the niche.

C) self-thinning rule.

D) competitive exclusion principle.

E) All of the choices are correct.
E
The number of eggs laid by a female is called her

A) fertility.

B) gonadosomatic index.

C) growth form.

D) rotundity.

E) fecundity.
B
The Lotka-Volterra predation model predicts that predators and prey, living together, will show

A) oscillations in population size that increase in amplitude through time.

B) oscillations in population size that remain of constant amplitude through time.

C) oscillations in population size that decrease in amplitude through time.

D) oscillations, but only when outside forces such as climatic variation are also present.

E) steady equilibria in population sizes.
E
Intraspecific competition among planthoppers

A) results in reduced survivorship.

B) results in increased development time.

C) occurs via resources rather than interference.

D) occurs because plants exploited by planthoppers have less protein and less moisture.

E) All of the choices are correct.
E
Which of the following organisms are dependent on mutualisms for their persistence?

A) reef-building corals

B) bioluminescent fishes

C) bumblebees and hummingbirds

D) horses, elephants, and camels

E) All of the choices are correct.
E
Gause's experiments with Paramecium and Didinium showed

A) extinction of the predator, followed by extinction of the prey, in all habitats.

B) coexistence of predator and prey at fairly constant population sizes, in all habitats.

C) coexistence of predator and prey, but with oscillating population sizes, in all habitats.

D) coexistence of predator and prey at fairly constant population sizes, but only in the presence of refuges and predator reservoirs.

E) coexistence of predator and prey with oscillating population sizes, but only in the presence of refuges and predator reservoirs.
C
A polymorphic locus is one that

A) codes for more than one protein.

B) codes for both protein and lipid.

C) occurs in a population as more than one allele.

D) occurs on more than one chromosome.

E) can cause more than one phenotype in an individual, depending on the environment.
A
The "unsuccessful mutualists" in Kathleen Keeler's cost-benefit model of mutualism are those that

A) give benefits to their partner, but fail to receive benefits in return.

B) receive benefits from their partner, but fail to provide benefits in return.

C) neither give benefits to their partner, nor receive them in return.

D) fail to locate individuals of their mutualistic partner effectively.

E) locate mutualistic partners, but fail to overcome their defenses against colonization.
E
Ant-acacia trees provide several services to their mutualistic ant partners. These include

A) enlarged thorns to host ant colonies.

B) nectar from foliar nectaries.

C) nectar from floral nectaries.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) Both enlarged thorns to host ant colonies and nectar from foliar nectarie
B
Soil fertilization should favor mycorrhizal fungi that are

A) less aggressive at obtaining sugars from their plant hosts.

B) more aggressive at obtaining sugars from their plant hosts.

C) more efficient at extracting inorganic nutrients from soils.

D) more efficient at extracting sugars from soils.

E) more efficient at extracting inorganic nutrients from plant root exudates.
C
Which statement about snowshoe hare and lynx populations in boreal Canada is false?

A) Lynx are not the only important predator of snowshoe hares.

B) Lynx and hare populations both oscillate repeatedly, with a similar period.

C) Snowshoe hares rarely deplete their food supply enough to affect their population biology.

D) Trapping records kept by non-scientists can provide useful records of hare population sizes.

E) Field experiments imply that hare cycles depend both on the hares' food and their predators.
D
Mycorrhizal fungi (directly) help their plant partners acquire

A) sugars.

B) sunlight.

C) seed dispersal.

D) soil nutrients.

E) pollination.
A
Seeds bearing eliasomes are likely to be dispersed by

A) ants.

B) wind.

C) water.

D) birds.

E) scatterhoarding mammals.
E
In the Lotka-Volterra predation model, the predator death rate is represented by

A) c.

B) p.

C) cp.

D) dpNp.

E) dp.
D
During droughts in the Galápagos Islands, the ground finches most likely to survive are those with

A) smaller bodies.

B) smaller bills.

C) earlier maturation.

D) larger bills.

E) larger territories.
C
__________ consume live plant material but do not usually kill plants.

A) Predators

B) Pathogens

C) Herbivores

D) Parasites

E) Parasitoids
D
Gause's "competitive exclusion principle" states that

A) when two species occur together, competition is always prevented by some behavioral adjustment.

B) no two species can coexist indefinitely.

C) no two competing species can coexist indefinitely.

D) no two species with identical niches can coexist indefinitely.

E) None of the choices are correct.
B
A species feeding on the tissue of its host, while not killing it directly, is a

A) predator.

B) parasite.

C) parasitoid.

D) cannibal.

E) debilitator.
C
Which of the following is NOT true of riparian plant communities?

A) plant species adapted to frequent disturbance by flooding

B) plant species dependent on flooding often dominant

C) low species diversity, compared to surrounding terrestrial communities

D) high population densities, compared to surrounding terrestrial communities

E) seriously impacted by human activities
E
Which of the following factors can stabilize predator-prey relationships by providing a prey refuge?

A) an area of prey habitat where predators cannot enter

B) an area of prey habitat that is isolated and difficult for predators to find

C) the occurrence of prey in numbers too large for predators to attack effectively

D) the ability of prey to grow to a size invulnerable to predation

E) All of the choices are correct.
C
Bethel and Holmes demonstrated

A) positive phototaxis in Acanthocephalans infected by amphipods.

B) negative phototaxis in Acanthocephalans infected by amphipods.

C) positive phototaxis in amphipods infected by Acanthocephalans.

D) negative phototaxis in amphipods infected by Acanthocephalans.

E) increased herbivory by amphipods infected by Acanthocephalans.
Semelparous
One major reproductive effort
Iteroparous
Repeated reproductive efforts
Precocial
Able to move around early, grow slowly
Altricial
Born helpless, grow quickly
Intrasexual selection
Individuals of one sex compete among themselves for mates
Intersexual selection
Individuals of one sex consistently choose mates among members of opposite sex based on a particular trait