President Andrew Jackson ordered it. Provided funds for uprooting five Indian tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole) living in North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi (population around 60,000). Indians tried to assimilate into American culture by creating schools, adopting laws, and writing a constitution, but it did not stop the uprooting. Jackson still called them savages and supported Georgia's attempt to seize Indian land. Led to removal of Indians (Trail of Tears) between 1830 and 1840; moved west to Oklahoma.