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AP European History Chapter 27
Terms in this set (78)
This was an unsuccessful uprising of Soviet sailors, soldiers and civilians led by Stepan Petrichenko against the government of the early Russian SFSR in March 1921 during a period of left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks.
New Economic Policy
(1921) This allowed capitalist ventures, state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit stopped harassing peasants for grain, and peasants held on to small plots of land and sold surplus
a seven-member committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia
These people follow the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. (Trotskyism) Trotsky considered himself an orthodox Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. His politics differed sharply from Stalinism, most prominently in opposing Socialism in One Country, which he argued was a break with proletarian internationalism, and in his belief in an authentic dictatorship of the proletariat based on democratic principles, rather than an unaccountable bureaucracy.
These people follow the theory and practice of Communism as advocated by Joseph Stalin. Stalinism is associated with a regime of terror and a strict totalitarian rule.
editor of Pravda and the main ideological voice for the right wing, a Communist Party faction who opposed Trotsky's drive for rapid industrialization in the 1920s. Bukharin supported Lenin's NEP. He and Stalin shared similar positions on economic development, but he was later forced off the Politburo when Stalin changed his policies in 1929. Under the Great Purges, Bukharin confessed to political crimes and was convicted and executed
"Truth" communist party newspaper, it linked enemies at home to foreign agents seeking to restore power to the landowners and capitalists, this revived extreme nationalism
People's Commissariat of Nationalities
This was the Soviet Government body. It was established even before the October Revolution on 11 June 1917 by the Petrograd Soviet as part of three measures to create state forms which would guarantee federal and autonomous solutions to national questions in the Russian Revolution: complete civil equality for all citizens, the right to use one's mother tongue in official business, on a par with Russian, and the formation of a Soviet of nationality affairs - Narkomnats
"Socialism in one country"
A thesis put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924, elaborated by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and finally adopted as state policy by Stalin. The thesis held that given the defeat of all communist revolutions in Europe from 1917-1921 except in Russia, the Soviet Union should begin to strengthen itself internally.
Another name for Comintern.
an international communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
the Conditions of Admission to the Communist International, refer to the conditions given by Vladimir Lenin to the adhesion of the socialists to the Third International (Comintern) created in 1919 after the 1917 October Revolution. The conditions were formally adopted by the Second Congress of the Comintern in 1920
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Fasci de Combattimento
"Bands of Cmbat" Was an Italian fascist party founded in Milan in 1919. Made mostly of war veterans, this party wanted revisions in the French peace treaties of WWI, combat communism and the spread of domestic inflation.
an Italian daily newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since December 25, 1896. It took its name from its German counterpart Vorwärts.
Il Popolo d'Italia
an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini on November 15, 1914, as a result of his split with the Italian Socialist Party. Became the foundation for the Fascist movement in Italy after World War I. The paper, advocating militarism and irredentism, was subsidized by the French and industrialists on the pretext of influencing Italy to join the Entente Powers
an Italian poet, journalist, novelist, dramatist, and daredevil. His role in politics is controversial due to his influence on the Italian Fascist movement and his status as the alleged forerunner of Benito Mussolini.
area demanded by Italy, it chose to belong to Yugoslavia
Catholic Popular Party
the new political party that arose in Italy that appealed to the working and agrarian classes
Political parties formed in the unity of an international organization with a set beliefs inspired by the writings of Karl Marx. They desired economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income. Their goal was to end the capitalist system, distribute wealth more equally, and nationalize industries
a private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.
King Victor Emmanuel III
The king of Italy at the time of Mussolini- gave him dictatorial powers for one year to end nation's social unrest
socialist. Stood up in the chamber of deputies and said that the Fascists cheated on their elections(true fact) and that he was gonna publish a book and prove it. Then he was stabbed and shot and killed, probably on Mussolini's orders. Caused sort of a fragile time/crisis in regime.
gave recognition to the Fascist Party in exchange for recognition of Papal power over the Vatican
Blue Horizon Chamber
Name given to the ultraconservative members of France's Chamber of Deputies because of the number of military officers in blue uniforms.
This alliance joined Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia against defeated and bitter Hungary. France was also closely associated with this alliance
French nationalistic Prime Minister who occupied German mining/manufacturing districts to ensure payment of German reparations
Occupation of the Ruhr
When France occupied the Ruhr and seized control of the factories; occurred after Germany was unable to make reparation payments
Cartel des Gauches
A coalition of socialist parties,
swept into power in France in the elections of 1924; caused an ultranationalist reaction in France.
leader of Cartel Des Gauches
French foreign minister who deemphasized aggressive military intervention and championed the League of Nations
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland. Germany went around it.
Liberal Prime Minister of Great Britain until 1916. Ousted by David Lloyd George
Andrew Bonar Law
Conservatives replaced Lloyd George with him, a conservative, fell to throat cancer, and was replaced with Stanley Baldwin.
the leader of the Conservatives in Britain during the 20's. He had an uncompromising spirit on social issues, and his international and domestic programs can be summed up by the last line of a speech he said in March 1925: "Give us peace in our time, O Lord."
Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) was the leader of the Labour Party during the 20's. With the help of the Liberals, he was able to take power in 1924 and 1929.
King George V
English king who ruled World War I
Indian leader who used civil disobedience and passive resistance against British rule in India. A total BAMF.
Rebellion in Ireland in 1916 that was given some aid by Germany in hopes that the Irish would demand independence and deflect British attention and undermine fighting strength and morale against the Germans.
formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland up until 1918. Its central objectives were legislative independence for Ireland and land reform. Its constitutional movement was instrumental in laying the groundwork for Irish self-government through three Irish Home Rule bills.
an Irish republican political movement founded in 1905 to promote independence from England and unification of Ireland
the lower house, but principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house). It is directly elected at least once in every five years under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (STV). Its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas.
Led Irish nationalists as they sought total independence from Great Britain.
Irish Republican Army
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
This would have allowed Ireland to govern itself while technically remaining a subsidary of Great Britain.
Marshal Josef Pilsudski
In 1926, he carried out a military coup and ruled Poland personally until his death, when the gov. passed into the hands of a group of his military followers.
leader of Czechoslovakia that made the nation fair with integrity. He was believed to lead the country into a modern state
agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
Hungarian Soviet Republic
a short-lived Communist regime established in Hungary in the aftermath of World War I.
Admiral Miklos Horthy
former Habsburg naval officer who seized power in 1920 and encouraged attacks against Jews. Backed by Hungarian upper classes. Declared his determination to see Hungary regain its previous borders.
Count Stephen Bethlen
The effective ruler of Hungary during the 1920s. He presided over a government that was parliamentary in form, but aristocratic in character.
General Julius Gombos
(1886-1936) In 1932 this man succeeded Bethlen in Hungary. He pursued anti-Semitic policies and rigged elections. No matter how the popular vote turned out, the Gombos party controlled the government. After his death in 1936, anti-Semitism lingered in Hungarian politics.
Insisted that churches tackle modern social issues, socialism the natural outcome of Christianity
(1892-1934) In 1993 this Christian socialist became chancellor of Austria. He tried to steer a course between the Austrian Social democrats and the German Nazis, who had surfaced in Austria. In 1934 he outlawed all political parties except the Christian socialists, the agrarians, and the paramilitary groups, which composed his own
formed by Dollfuss. It was composed of the parlaimentary groups and Christian Socialist groups under Dollfuss
Kurt von Schuschnigg
Austrian Chancellor who refused to be intimidated by Hitler and decided to announce a plebiscite on March 13th in which Austrian people themselves could decide whether to unite with Germany
under the Wiemar Republic constitution, this authorized emergency decrees suspending civil liberties
A 1920 armed conservative insurrection that temporarily caused the German government to flee and resulted in workers' strikes
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces. Mastermind behind the Holocaust and the blitzkrieg.
The fiery mayor of Vienna who preached anti-Semitism and appealed to lower middle class
National Socialist German Worker's Party
A German Fascist movement made up of young people and led by Hitler. Enjoyed killing Socialists and the like. Also known as the Nazi party.
the official emblem of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich
National Socialist Program
this 25-point Program advocated democracy and greater popular rights — the Nazis discarded most of it upon assuming German government in 1933.
Nazi militia created by Hitler in 1921 that helped him to power but was eclipsed by the SS after 1943
Was the Chief of Staff of the SA and a leading figure in the early history of the party. After the Nazis came to power, he expected the SA to be turned into a Nazi 'People's Army', but his idea was opposed by Hitler and regular army. He was murdered in the blood purge, known and the 'Night of Long Knives', in June 1934.
Hitler's private army of supporters, also known as the SA (Sturm Abteilung).
Commander of German armies on the Western Front. In the spring of 1918, he launched an all-out offensive on the Allies, gambling everything.
Beer Hall Putsch
was a failed coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the Nazi party's Adolf Hitler tried to overthrow the German government.
in English means 'My Struggles' or 'My battle,' is a book written by Adolf Hitler while he was in prison. It combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's National Socialist political ideology.
This currency was put in place in the Weimar Republic to replace the deutschemark (1:1000 value) in order to curb inflation.
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
after William II left, he rules the Social Democracy and announces a democratic republic.
Field Marshal Paul Von Hindenburg
military hero and conserve monarchist. He was elected as the successor of Ebert as the Social Democratic President. Stuck to constitution and therefore German policies became more conservative.
program for settlement of German reparations after World War I. Presented by American Owen D. Young. Set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. Was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan.
In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland. Germany and France pledged to accept their common border, and Britain and Italy agreed to fight either France or Germany if either one invaded the other. Other boundary disputes were also settled.
Pact of Paris of 1928. Between France and US. Denunciated war, called for a limitation of arms, and prohibited the use of war as an "instrument of national policy".
Englishman who received the Nobel prize for his work on Locarno
seized power in March 1919, taking advantage of post-war chaos, and tried to impose a Soviet regime in Hungary. Communist journalist.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP European History Chapter 26
AP European History Chapter 24
AP European History Chapter 30 &31
AP European History Chapter 21
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