91 terms

Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Acheulian
(Lower Paleolithic: 1.6 mya-300kya) Handaxe • Homo erectus • Swiss Army knife • Symmetry and standardization • Direct percussion • Soft hammer • Mostly bifacial; use of fire (Decrease mortality, enter into colder climates, protect from predators, and defrost/tenderize food, kill parasites) and rafts (explore new area)
Alternatives to Burials
Burials at sea • Cannibalism • Cremation • Ecological Funeral - Promession (frozen and turned to power)/Resomation (environmentally friendlier than cremation) • Gibbeting (hung for display) • Hanging Coffins (wodden boxes on side of cliff and then boxes fall into the ocean) • Excarnation (natural removing the flesh in Charnel House and is commonly associated with secondary burials)
Archaeoastronomy
the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures."
Archaeobotany
study of plant remains from archaeological sites to better understand the environmental context of past societies and how the environment was exploited and modified; botanical remains
Archaeology
The study of human past through material remains, involving themes of change and time
Artifacts
portable object or material used, modified, or created by human activity
Atlatls, Harpoons, Woomeras
Upper Paleolithic; spread throwers - A grooved board which propels a spear with increased force - Earliest ones come from French cave sites • ~15,000 years ago - Greatly increases distance and power
Behistun Inscription
(Approx. 500 B.C.) pictures craved into the side of a mountain; cuneiform
Blombos Cave
Pressure flaking 73,000 years ago - Bone tools (80,000 years ago) - Decorated pigment and shell beads (75,000 years ago) - Early evidence for shellfishing and possibly fishing (140,000 years ago)
Boc Mo
rent a burial spot and then after time is up bones are put into a red and gold box
Burial Orientation
the way the head or body is facing
Cave Art vs. Portal Art
cave art was found in caves and Portal art was taken from place to place and were small items
Circumscription Theory
Populations concentrated in agricultural areas • Population grows, agricultural areas fill up, competition for land and resources increases • If agricultural areas are limited (circumscribed) by natural boundaries, stress leads to warfare • A state established to administer conquered lands, people and tribute; Problems with Circumscription Theory:• Explains some, but not all, cases of primary state formation Ex: Peru, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, and Egypt • Population increases and warfare within a circumscribed environment does not always lead to state formation Ex: Papua New Guinea, East Africa, and Sri Lanka
Consequences of Food Production Advantages
• Increase Productivity
•New skills and technologies
•Larger sedentary populations
•Specialization
•Political institutions
Consequences of Food Production Costs
• Heavily dependent on certain foods
•Malnutrition
•Increased disease close contact with animals, humans, waste
•Increase warfare
•Social Inequality
•Soil depletion
Context
the relationship bewtween and among atrifacts, ecofacts, fossils, and features
Coprolite
fossillized excrement (poop)
Core vs. Flake
core is the main piece and the flake is what comes off of the core when hit
Cro Magnon
Humans who lived in western Europe about 35,000 years ago, during which dinosaurs and other reptiles ceased to be the dominant land vertebrates, and mammals and birds began to become important
Cuneiform
wedge shaped writing invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.; used o keep records and receipts (Mesopotamia)
Dendrochronology
Study of the annual growth rings of trees • Very precise dates • Requires good wood preservation; earliest reasoning for Dendrochronology: Squier and Davis (1848) trees on Mississippi mounds
Direct Percussion
using one tool and striking it against the core
Domestication
Modification or adaptation of plants and animals for use by humans. When people plant crops, we refer to the process as cultivation. It is only when the crops cultivated and the animals raised have been modified - are different from wild varieties - that we speak of plant and animal domestication; Process:1. Notice a desirable trait in a species 2. Separate members of the species from nature 3. Selective breeding (artificial selection) 4. Exaggerate desirable trait(s) 5. Change on the biological level; Earliest Domestication was not for food (Gourds as containters
Early Civilizations
Old World: Mesopotamia (5,500 years ago) Egypt (5,100 years ago ) Indus River Valley (4,800 years ago) China (3,800 years ago); New World: Peru (2,200 years ago) Mesoamerica (AD 100)
Ecofacts
Non-artifactual remains that have archaeological relevance • Provide information on environment & subsistence
Environmental Preservation
the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. In terms of policy making this often means setting aside areas as nature reserves (otherwise known as wildlife reserves), parks, or other conservation areas.
Ethnohistory
the study of cultures and indigenous customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not exist today.
Evolution of Pyramid
Tomb à Mastaba à Stepped Pyramid à Bent Pyramid à True Pyramid
Excavation
Systematic uncovering of artifacts and features • Types of excavation: -
Features
non-portable human-made object (recorded in-situ) • Cannot be moved without destroying • Must be studied (documented) in the field; Foot prints form Laetoil, Africa, ca. 3.6 MYA; Post hoels, circular structure, Georgia
Flexed vs Extended Burial
Flexed: tucked in like cannon ball or fetus position; Extended: arms and legs are extended out
Floatation
Technique for the recovery of botanical remains (small stuff);
Food Collection vs. Production
Collectors: Food Collectors - Foragers • Hunting • Fishing • Gathering (also called "hunter‐gatherers"); Producers: Horticulturalists - Pastoralists - Agriculturalists
Fossils
the hardened remains or impressions of plants and animals that lived in the past
Ground Stone Tools
formed by the grinding of a coarse grained tool stone wither purposely or incidentally
Half‐life
the time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay into atoms of a different substance
Hieratic
abridged hieroglyphics; Oldest Hieratic • First Patience Case File • ~1600 BCE - 48 cases each w/type of the injury, examination of the patient, diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment
Hieroglyphics
"Picture writing," as in ancient Egypt and in Maya sites in Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America)
Historical Archaeology
A specialty within archaeology that studies the material remains of recent people who left written records
Hollywood's Archaeology
finding cool stuff for museums aka Indiana Jones
Horizontal Excavation
Opening large areas of particular layer •Reveals spatial association between artifacts and features (Cherokee site in Tennessee)
Hydraulic Theory
Most primary states depend on irrigation • Irrigation construction required centralized government • Administrators controlled the vital water resource and soon controlled a dependent population; water control increases production, but it demands labor and organization; Problems with Hydraulic Theory: Large irrigation does not appear until AFTER the primary state in Mesopotamia• Some societies had irrigation but never became a state (Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest)
Indirect Percussion
Using more than one tool to flake off pieces
Inorganic vs. Organic
Inorganic: Stone tools, pottery, metals • extremely good preservation; Organic: generally poorly perserved
Irrigation
the watering of land to make it ready for agriculture. If you want to start a strawberry farm in the desert, irrigation will be necessary. Irrigation comes from the Latin for "moist" or "wet," but it means the purposeful wetting of something.
Jared Diamond
wrote the worst mistake in human history. The thing about agriculture being the worst thing EEEEEEEVER.
Landfill Composition
dr lacquement left this part out of his powerpoint online lmao so we will literally never know but I do remember that the trash in landfills is mostly not what u'd expect like idk but I am so pissed at him rn
Long‐Distance Trade Theory
Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, and later kingdoms of Africa - Organizational requirements of producing items for export, redistributing items imported, and defending trade parties would foster state formation - Sites include points of supply or exchange, such as crossroads of routes, and places such as river narrows situated to threaten or halt trade between centers.
Material Culture
artifacts, features, ecofacts, sites.
Megafauna
EXTREME ANIMALS
Mousterian
(Middle : Paleolithic: 300 - 40kya) • Flake tools instead of core tools • Retouched • Levallois technique • Variety of tools - Composite tools - Blades
Neolithic - "new stone age" 10k
3k years ago. - Domestication and Food Production - Ground Stone Tools - Composite tools for plant harvesting - Ceramic Pottery
Oldowan
(Basal Paleolithic: 2.6 - 1.6 mya) • Olduvai Gorge • Homo habilis • Flakes and choppers • Direct percussion • Little standardization or retouching • Mostly Unifacial
Otzi
the iceman, found frozen in the swiss alps, 61 tattoos in 19 different parts of the body. 5.3k years ago
Paleolithic
old stone age. - Basal : 2,600,000 - 1,600,000 years ago - Lower : 1,600,000 - 300,000 - Middle : 300,000 - 40,000 - Upper : 40,000 - 10,000
Phytolith
= rigid, microstructure in plant cells (e.g., silica). He talked about how coconut is his favorite phytolith bc it looks so different or something idk
Pictograph
Pictographic or Logographic (semantic only) • Pictures resemble the things they represent • Usually first in evolution to logosyllabic or alphabetic systems • Difficult to represent complex or abstract objects or actions
Logosyllabic
Logosyllabic (semantic and phonetic) • Symbols that represent spoken syllables written together to replicate the sounds of the word • Combination of meaning and sound • Chinese and Japanese • Early Cuneiform and Egyptian writing
Alphabetic
Alphabetic (phonetic only) • Symbols reflect the pronunciation of the words • Each symbol has a specific way of being pronounced • Can be arranged to make different words
Piltdown Fraud
ok all I wrote in my notes was "u can't trust brits" BUT ANYWAY Exposed as a hoax in 1953 • Fluorine/Uranium dating indicated skull was only about 600 years old and jaw was from a modern orangutan.
Potassium‐Argon Dating
• 40K is common in Earth's crust and is unstable • Decay begins (slowly) when molten rock cools and solidifies (e.g. volcanic layers) • Half-life of 1.3 billion years gives range of 100kya-earliest rocks on Earth.
Prehistory
time before written records
Pressure Flaking
toolmaking technique whereby small flakes are struck off by pressing against the core with a bone, antler, or wooden tool.
Primary vs Secondary Burials
primary, the body is left in one spot to decompose. Secondary, the body is dug up and moved somewhere else.
Pseudoarchaeology
also known as alternative archaeology, fringe archaeology, fantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology — refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted data-gathering and analytical methods of the discipline. (I don't remember ever talking about this tbh)
Radiocarbon Dating
Willard Libby in 1949, awarded Nobel Prize • Environmental 14C is absorbed by living organisms. When they die, no more is absorbed and decay rates can be measured. • Half-life of 5730 years makes method very useful for much of the archaeological record (to 50/100kya)
Raised Fields
created by piling soil into a long mound, which becomes surrounded by a ditch as soil is taken from it and piled on the mound.
Relative vs. Absolute Dating
relative is "this is older than that" while absolute dating has an actual timeline with dates.
Remote Sensing
using technology like aerial photography or sensory imaging or satellites or gps
Rosetta Stone
Royal decree by Ptolemy V in 196 BC • Written in Hieroglyphic, Demotic, and Greek • Romans closed temples - Writing lost from AD 400 until 1822 • Found by Napoleon's troops in the Nile Delta in 1799.
Screening
using a screen to sift through dirt, can be wet or dry
Seriation
creating a sequence of artifact types and variability over time
Silver Fox
Russia did that thing where they took the tamer foxes and bred them and now there's a species of fox that is nice and calm and VERY EXPENSIVE
Sites
the place where you find artifacts, ecofacts, and features.
State
the opposite of bands (groups of families) that are bigger and have more unrelated people living in a community.
Stratigraphy
the study of how different rock formations and fossils are laid down in successive layers or strata. Older layers are generally deeper or lower than more recent layers.
Supine vs Prone
extended body position, supine being upward facing while prone is downward.
Systematic Survey
detailed examination of an area for the purpose of recording the location and significance of archaeological resources
Terraced Fields
decrease both erosion and surface runoff, and may be used to support growing crops that require irrigation, such as rice. Couldn't find it in notes??? Probably china and east asia bc rice.
Tollund Man
400bc Denmark, was saved in peet bogs, where the ground is constantly waterlogged, was essentially a skin cape when they found him bc the calcium broke down and his bones turned to mush, however, the body disintegrated with travel and stuff so the head is the only real part left.
Transition to States
Four Culture Changes in Transition to States 1. Agricultural innovation 2. Diversification of labor 3. Emergence of central government 4. Social stratification
Tucson Garbage Project
an archaeological and sociological study instituted in 1973 by Dr. William Rathje in the city of Tucson in the Southwestern American state of Arizona. This project is sometimes referred to outside of academic circles as the "garbology project". information people freely volunteered about their consumption habits did not always tally with the contents of their waste bins. For example, alcohol consumption was proven to be significantly higher in reality than in the questionnaires completed by the people studied. Such findings have highlighted the difference between people's self-reported and actual behaviors.
Upper Paleolithic and Dates - 40k
10k years ago. Microliths, atlatls points, and harpoons - Use of New Techniques • Indirect Percussion • Pressure Flaking**
Use‐Wear Analysis
• Microscopic analysis of a tools edge for characteristic wear patterns • Experimental archaeology
Vertical Excavation
excavating to expose the different layers of strata in the soil. Site formation and chronology.
Worst Mistake
agriculture is the WOOOORST by jared diamond (he is just very upset I think) (I should probably have read this more closely I don't remember much except that ****head in class ugh)
Mesopotamia Writing System
started for economic records. Tokens 8000 ‐ 3500 BC • Bulla (envelope) 3500 BC • Cuneiform tablets 3200 BC
Egypt Writing System
political records of who was in power and such. Over 3,000 years, Ancients used 3 types of writings : - Hieroglyphic - Hieratic - Demotic (25th Dynasty)
China Writing System
started for religious reasons, oracle bones and decision making.
Mesoamerica Writing System
political record keeping to show the life events of rulers, etc. hieroglyphic stairway in Copán.
Zooarchaeology
the study of animal bones from archaeological sites