fungi and lichens, biology 1023 lab
Terms in this set (64)
fruiting body of the ascomycota fungus - reproductive structure - produces multiple asci
sac in ascomycota in which the sexual spores are produced
how many ascospores are produced in the ascus?
sexual spores of the ascomycota produced in the ascus
fleshy fruiting body of the basidiomycota
club-shaped structures where basidiospores are stored
sexual spores of the basidiomycota
where zygospores develop
sexually reproductive spores, thick-walled resting structures
fungi body made of branched filaments
branched filaments that make up mycelium
cross-wall, dividing wall between fungal cells
plants extended "root system", fungus gets carbs from plants and plants get critical mineral nutrients
first fungi to appear
some are parasites and pathogens
sexual reproduction of chyritidiomycota
asexual reproduction of chyritidiomycota
diploid flagellate zoospores
what links chytrids with an ancestor of protists and animals?
flagellum on spores or gametes
composed mainly of aseptate hyphae and distinct reproductive structures
world wide distribution
asexual reproduction of zygomycota
by spores produced in sporangia
sexual reproduction of zygomycota
examples of zygomycota
sake (Japaneses wine) and inoculate soybeans to make tempeh
why does (when do) zygomycota attack fruit and vegetables?
when they have been injured
aka AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal)
form "endomycorrhizae" with many plant species
surround the plant roots and aid in the absorption of nutrients from the soil
AM fungi hyphae
asexually by means of spores
for what reason do vascular plants depend on AM fungi?
for increased absorption area
why is glomeromycota the most important fungi?
fossil evidence suggests the invasion of plants on land may have depended on help from fungal associates
many are decomposers, some pathogens
many form lichens, some are mycorrhizal
sexual reproduction of ascomycota
non-flagellate ascospores in asci on ascocarps
asexual reproduction of ascomycota
examples of ascomycota
dutch elm disease
regarded as most advanced
why are basidiomycota the most advanced?
because of their hyphal and reproductive structures
asexual reproduction of basidiomycota
several spore types
sexual reproduction of basidiomycota
basidiospores on club-shaped basidia on basidiocarps
examples of basidiomycota
shaggy ink cap
benefits of fungi
alcoholic beverages - beer,wine, whiskey
harmful effects of fungi
destruction of substances
human diseases caused by fungi
meningitis and brain tumors
example of mutualistic relationship between two organisms
2 parts that lichens are composed of
a fungs and algae (or cyanobacteria)
lichens composed of algae (or cyanobacteria) provide what to the fungi?
food and oxygen
what does the fungi provide to the algae?
carbon dioxide, mineral nutrients, and protection from environmental stress
3 main growth forms of lichens
crust-like, growing tight against the material
flattened and leaf-like
hair-like, grow upright and branched
how old are some lichens believed to be?
benefits lichens provide to the soil
soil-building activities and increase soil fertility by adding fixed nitrogen
why are lichens beneficial air quality monitors?
sensitive to air pollutants
what do mycorrhizal fungi and plants do for one another ?
fungi receive carbohydrates from the plants and plants get an enlarged root system and receive essential mineral and nutrients
explain the fate of the leaves that the leafcutter ants harvest?
leaves are broken down to build a fungus garden - where the ants live and what they also use for food
how many organisms are involved in the feeding process of the leafcutter ants?
ants, leaf, fungi, bacteria, parasites
what do the ants do for the feeding process?
cut and cultivate the leaves
what are the leaves part for the feeding process?
used to make their living space and food
what is the role of the fungi in the feeding process?
plays the role of decomposer and primary food source, grown underground
what is the role of the bacteria in the feeding process?
found on the ants body, special properties of antibiotics to fight off other molds and fungi
what is the role of the parasites in the feeding process?
would take over if not weeded by the ants
all fungi , organisms that cannot manufacture its own food - instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter
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