64 terms

fungi and lichens, biology 1023 lab

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fruiting body of the ascomycota fungus - reproductive structure - produces multiple asci
ascocarp
sac in ascomycota in which the sexual spores are produced
ascus
how many ascospores are produced in the ascus?
8
sexual spores of the ascomycota produced in the ascus
ascospore
fleshy fruiting body of the basidiomycota
basidiocarp
club-shaped structures where basidiospores are stored
basidium
sexual spores of the basidiomycota
basidiospore
where zygospores develop
zygosporangia
sexually reproductive spores, thick-walled resting structures
zygospore
fungi body made of branched filaments
mycelium
branched filaments that make up mycelium
hyphae
cross-wall, dividing wall between fungal cells
septum
plants extended "root system", fungus gets carbs from plants and plants get critical mineral nutrients
mycorrhiza
simplest fungi
first fungi to appear
aquatic
flagellated cells
mostly decomposers
some are parasites and pathogens
Chytrids (chyritidiomycota)
...
pileus (cap)
...
Gills
...
annulus
...
stipe (stem)
...
Volva
sexual reproduction of chyritidiomycota
haploid gametes
asexual reproduction of chyritidiomycota
diploid flagellate zoospores
what links chytrids with an ancestor of protists and animals?
flagellum on spores or gametes
bread molds
composed mainly of aseptate hyphae and distinct reproductive structures
world wide distribution
non-motile spores
zygomycota
asexual reproduction of zygomycota
by spores produced in sporangia
sexual reproduction of zygomycota
zygospores
examples of zygomycota
sake (Japaneses wine) and inoculate soybeans to make tempeh
why does (when do) zygomycota attack fruit and vegetables?
when they have been injured
aka AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal)
form "endomycorrhizae" with many plant species
aseptate hyphae
most important
glomeromycota
surround the plant roots and aid in the absorption of nutrients from the soil
AM fungi hyphae
glomeromycota reproduction:
asexually by means of spores
for what reason do vascular plants depend on AM fungi?
for increased absorption area
why is glomeromycota the most important fungi?
fossil evidence suggests the invasion of plants on land may have depended on help from fungal associates
cup-fungi
mainly terrestrial
many are decomposers, some pathogens
many form lichens, some are mycorrhizal
ascomycota
sexual reproduction of ascomycota
non-flagellate ascospores in asci on ascocarps
asexual reproduction of ascomycota
conidia
examples of ascomycota
blue cheese
yeast
common mold
dutch elm disease
penicillium
truffles
morels
club fungi
regarded as most advanced
septate hyphae
terrestrial
predominantly decomposers
high diversity
basidiomycota
why are basidiomycota the most advanced?
because of their hyphal and reproductive structures
asexual reproduction of basidiomycota
several spore types
sexual reproduction of basidiomycota
basidiospores on club-shaped basidia on basidiocarps
examples of basidiomycota
shaggy ink cap
honey mushroom
stem rust
corn smut
puffballs
button mushrooms
benefits of fungi
food
alcoholic beverages - beer,wine, whiskey
medicines
agricultural importance
mycorrhiza
plant hormones
harmful effects of fungi
food spoilage
plant disease
human diseases
destruction of substances
highly toxic
human diseases caused by fungi
meningitis and brain tumors
example of mutualistic relationship between two organisms
lichens
2 parts that lichens are composed of
a fungs and algae (or cyanobacteria)
lichens composed of algae (or cyanobacteria) provide what to the fungi?
food and oxygen
what does the fungi provide to the algae?
carbon dioxide, mineral nutrients, and protection from environmental stress
3 main growth forms of lichens
crustose
foliose
fruticose
crust-like, growing tight against the material
crustose
flattened and leaf-like
foliose
hair-like, grow upright and branched
fruticose
how old are some lichens believed to be?
4500
benefits lichens provide to the soil
soil-building activities and increase soil fertility by adding fixed nitrogen
why are lichens beneficial air quality monitors?
sensitive to air pollutants
what do mycorrhizal fungi and plants do for one another ?
fungi receive carbohydrates from the plants and plants get an enlarged root system and receive essential mineral and nutrients
explain the fate of the leaves that the leafcutter ants harvest?
leaves are broken down to build a fungus garden - where the ants live and what they also use for food
how many organisms are involved in the feeding process of the leafcutter ants?
ants, leaf, fungi, bacteria, parasites
what do the ants do for the feeding process?
cut and cultivate the leaves
what are the leaves part for the feeding process?
used to make their living space and food
what is the role of the fungi in the feeding process?
plays the role of decomposer and primary food source, grown underground
what is the role of the bacteria in the feeding process?
found on the ants body, special properties of antibiotics to fight off other molds and fungi
what is the role of the parasites in the feeding process?
would take over if not weeded by the ants
all fungi , organisms that cannot manufacture its own food - instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter
heterotrophic