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Psychological Disorders

a "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable

Medical Model

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases cured

Bio-psycho-social Perspective

A contemporary perspective which assumes the biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders


The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DIsorders (4th ed), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

Neurotic Disorder

A psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially. Freud saw the neurotic disorders as wys of dealing with anxiety

Psychotic Disorder

A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

Anxiety Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terrors and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations


An anxiety disorder marked be a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

Odsessive-compulsive Disorder

AN anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and or actions (compulsions)

Mood Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by mental extremes

Major Depression Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

Manic Episode

A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Bipolar Disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

Dissociative Disorders

Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

Dissociative Identity Disorder

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct personalities (aka multiple personality disorder)


A groupd of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusion thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions


False beliefs, often of persecution of grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Personality Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder in which the person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members, may be aggressive and ruthless or clever con artist

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