IB Music-CONTEXT-Classical Period
Terms in this set (76)
a continuation of the Baroque solo concerto with 2 new features: double exposition and cadenze
In a concerto, this term refers to the twofold statement of the theme, once by the orchestra and once by the soloist.
Unaccompanied virtuoso section or passage where the performer can display their technical brilliance.
Music using a small group of musicians with one player to a part. Written mainly for home entertainment, from the Classical period onward the ensemble name equals the numbers of players. ie. Septet = seven players), Octet = 8, etc...
Regarded as the perfect chamber music combination (2 violins, a viola and a cello), and Haydn was credited with Creating the musical template followed by later composers. A feature to watch out for is the frequent changes in texture as a means of maintaining musical interest.
Elements of Classical Style
Singable, lyrical melody
Regular rhythms and meters
Homophonic texture (melody with accompanying harmony)
Frequent use of folk elements
The Patronage System
* Aristocracy adopted arts as a necessary adornment of life
* Social events created a steady demand for new works
* Musicians ranked little better than servants, but: Economic security, Many great masters found this system workable
* Women found a place in music under the patronage system - Professional opera singers, ballet dancers, Instrumentalists, music teachers, solo performers
* Performances moved from palace to public concert hall
* Public concert venue (site) inspired productivity in composers
The Classical Period
* 1750 - 1825
* Considered the golden age of chamber music (ensemble work for 2-10 players, one on a part - String quartets, trios, quintets, serenades, divertimentos, etc)
String Quartet Structure
I: fast sonata-allegro
II: slow A-B-A or theme and variations
III: moderate dance, minuet and trio
IV: fast sonata-allegro or rondo
One of the principal instrumental forms of the Classical era. Roots are in the Italian opera overture - 1 movement, 3 sections: fast-slow-fast
Typically had 30-40 players, the heart of the group was the strings, assisted by woodwinds, brass, and percussion. Gained more color and flexibility as clarinets, flutes, oboes, and bassoons became permanent members.
Symphony: 1st Movement
* Allegro tempo, in sonata-allegro form
* Sometimes preceded by a slow introduction
* Based on the opposition of two keys
* Typically introduced with two contrasting themes
* Can be monothematic: based on a single theme (Haydn)
Symphony: 2nd Movement
*Three-part form (A-B-A), theme and variations, or modified sonata-allegro
*Typically a Largo, Adagio, or Andante tempo
*In contrasting key from first movement
Symphony: 3rd Movement
* Minuet and trio, triple meter
* Moderate tempo
* Beethoven's quick-tempo scherzo replaces minuet
Symphony: 4th Movement
*Allegro molto or Presto finale
*Sonata-allegro or rondo form
*Fast and light, serves to close the piece
* Themes often have a folk-dance character
has three movements: fast-slow-fast, usually features a cadenza
Classical Concerto: 1st Movement
* The longest and most complex
* Combines Baroque ritornello with sonata-allegro form
* Resulting form called first-movement concerto form
* Sometimes described as a sonata-allegro with a double exposition
* Key change to dominant or relative major in the second exposition
* Brilliant cadenza occurs near end of movement
Classical Concerto: 2nd Movement
Slow and lyrical, generally an Andante, Adagio, or Largo
Classical Concerto: 3rd Movement
* Typically an Allegro molto or Presto
* Shorter than the first movement
* In rondo form or sonata-allegro form; often has cadenza
* Three or four contrasting movements
* Similar to string quartet, symphony, concerto (fast-slow-moderate-fast)
Classical Vocal Music
Mass, Requiem, Opera, Oratorio
prevailed in the early 18th century - highly stylized, designed to display virtuosity of star singers
texture which dominated the classical period, consisted of a single melodic line and an accompaniment.
This style served as a transition from the Baroque to the Classical Era which developed in France, is actually an art term that described a new art style which was both a light and embellished. Musically speaking, it is referred to as style galant, and with this change in name came an added element of expressiveness and sentimentality.
Classical Form and Phrase Structure
* Shorter phrases and well defined cadences became more prevalent
* a favorite accompaniment pattern was the Alberti bass (name for Dominico Alberti), which featured a broken chord progression.
* More compact and diatonic
* Harmony was less structured. It used the tonic, dominant, and subdominant chords. Diatonic harmony was more common than chromatic
* Composers mainly used chords in triadic form and occasionally used seventh chords in their compositions.
4 Major Composers of Classical Era
Haydn, Mozart, Gluck, and Beethoven
Changes in Classical Opera
* Melodic recitatives with orchestral accompaniment were favored over Secco recitatives
* Solo singers began to lose some of their autocratic domination over opera performance and ostentatious virtuosity was less evident
* Choral ensembles were used on a much more frequent basis
* There was a greater concern for the dramatic aspects of operas, as there had been in the past and less concern given to formal music aspects
* The orchestra was no longer just used for accompaniment and expanded in size and nature
* Chains and arias were not the only structures used as composers made operas more dramatic by using different techniques
* Rigid da capo arias appeared less frequently as they gave way to more diversified forms. (127)
Classical Sonata: 1st Movement (Sonata-Allegro)
The first movement of a Sonata. It consisted of three sections: Exposition, Development and Recapitulation
This section presented the main theme of the movement in the tonic key. The theme then transitioned by a bridge and modulated to the dominant key, or relative major key if the movement was in a minor key. The second theme was presented in the dominant key. This section concluded with a closing theme or codetto.
This section used the material from the exposition which the composer "developed" and expanded. Motives were presented in various keys, registers, and groupings of instruments. In this section the composer also used new themes that were not found in the exposition section. The composer ended this section in the tonic key and moved directly into the recapitulation.
a restatement of the exposition but with all subsections remaining in the tonic key.
Classical Sonata: 2nd Movement
written in a slow tempo, in a contrasting key (usually the subdominant or dominant), in relation to the whole work. Additionally, this movement was more lyrical than the other movement.
Classical Sonata: 3rd Movement
Called the menuetto or minuet. special characteristics:
* It was written in a moderately fast tempo, played in the tonic key, and was written in three-four.
* The minuet had three sections: minuet, trio, and a repeat of the minuet. In a sonata with three movements, the minuet was left out or omitted.
Classical Sonata: 4th Movement
often called the finale, it had a lively tempo, was played in the tonic key, and was usually played in sonata-allegro form.
Type of chamber music composed for various media, such as small chamber ensembles and small orchestras. It had three to ten movements, which included minuets, dances, standard sonata-form movements, and marches. This music was meant for outdoor and informal performances. It was less sophisticated than symphonies. Haydn wrote over 60, and Mozart wrote more than 25.
A lyrical type of singing with a steady beat, accompanied by orchestra; a songful monologue or duet in an opera or other dramatic vocal work.
(Italian for "beautiful singing") An Italian singing tradition primarily in opera seria and opera buffa in the late 17th - to early-19th century. Characterized by seamless phrasing (legato), great breath control, flexibility, tone, and agility. Most often associated with singing done in the early-Romantic operas of Rossini, Bellini and Donizetti.
The term for a male singer who was castrated before puberty to preserve his high soprano range (this practice in Italy lasted until the late 1800s). Today, the rendering of castrato roles is problematic because it requires either a male singing falsetto (weak) or a mezzo-soprano (strong, but woman must impersonate a man).
Combining two or more independent melodies to make an intricate polyphonic texture.
"The Age of Enlightenment" or "The Age of Reason"
An 18th-century philosophical movement in France and later in the American colonies, aimed at improving society by logical thinking, such as the premise that common people could be free from aristocratic rule if they were educated enough to choose their own government and officials. (The American Declaration of Independence is based on such enlightened principles.) Enlightenment concepts influenced Classic musical forms and genres based on symmetry and balance, and impacted the types of common characters that were the heroes/heroines of Classic comic operas that spoofed the battle between the upper and lower European classes.
The musical design or shape of a movement or complete work.
A category (type) of musical composition.
Polyphonic music with all the parts moving rhythmically together (chordal texture).
Minuet and Trio (Minuet)
Compositional form derived from a dance; A is trio, B is minuet, and A is repeated; often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, quartets, and other works. Before 1810, this design was the usual third movement of the Classic four-movement design.
Opus numbers assigned by the publisher in the sequence that a composer's works were actually published--not when they were composed (therefore, opus numbers are not necessarily in chronological order--a piece may have been written many years before it was published). ("Op."; Latin for "work")
A speech-like manner of singing in a free rhythm
- Recitativo secco ("dry recitative") is a term that refers to speech-like singing accompanied sparsely by harpsichord. - Recitativo obbligato is a section of recitative that includes brief yet dramatic moments of orchestral support.
In a sonata form, this is the last part of the Development section that sets up the final harmonic return to the home key that happens with the start of the Recapitulation.
Compositional form in three parts ABA; sometimes used as the third movement in classical/romantic symphonies, string quartets, and other works; triple meter and usually faster than a minuet
Replaced the aristocratic Minuet as the preferred 3rd movement used in 4-movement Classic instrumental works after 1810.
In a concerto, this term in the score tells everyone to play together. Viennese Classical School: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven are often referred to by this term--They all worked in Vienna, establishing a Classic "school of thought" there.
The approximately 25 prayers that lead to and follow the taking of communion. There are two types of mass prayers: The "Ordinary" (5 everyday prayers--Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei) and The "Proper" (20 prayers that are appropriate only for a certain day, such as Easter or Christmas, according to the liturgical calendar of saints and holy days). A "musical Mass" often refers to a musical setting of just the Mass Ordinary (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei). In the Classic era, Masses continued to be written by Catholic composers such as Haydn and Mozart.
A sacred polyphonic choral setting usually with a Latin text, sometimes in imitative counterpoint. In the Classic era, motets continued to be written by Catholic composers such as Haydn and Mozart.
In the Classic period, a little chamber symphony for a small group of string or winds. Mozart Eine kleine Nachtmusik (1787). Instrumental composition; light in mood; usually meant for evening entertainment
Rounded Binary Form
created when the main melody returns at the end of the "B" section: ||: A :|| ||: B A :||
A form comprised of two distinctly opposing musical sections ("A" vs. "B") -it is the musical reflection of traveling a straight line from "Point A" to "Point B".
In Binary Forms, each section is usually repeated: ||: A :|| ||: B :||
A (means "tail" in Italian) A brief, final musical section often appended to a movement to bring it to a satisfying conclusion.
A design used in the first movements of Classic concertos that merges aspects of Baroque Ritornello form with Classic Sonata form: It still features the Exposition, Development and Recapitulation sections of the traditional sonata form, but has to make considerations for whether the "tutti" (orchestra) or "solo" plays the main themes and makes the critical harmonic modulations, and where the soloist does a cadenza:
A Baroque formal design based on the dramatic alternation of two opposing entities: A "returning" big group ("Tutti") and a contrasting small one ("solo")--Tutti-Solo-Tutti-Solo-Tutti-Solo-Tutti, etc. In the Classic era, ritornello form was superseded by Classic forms, but it was still used in the alternating "tutti vs. solo" structure in Classic concertos.
Scherzo & Trio Form
After 1810, this design was the usual third movement of four-movement works. This form features a moderately-fast commoner's dance in 6/8 meter with two opposing sections:
"Scherzo" section (a circular dance "in a 2 with a triplet feel" [6/8], quite different than a "Minuet")
"Trio" section: sweeter-sounding with reduced scoring
A form that blends the essential features of both sonata form and rondo form.
A form having both opposition and return ("A B A")--it is the musical reflection of a circle (start at "A" at the top, go around the circle to "B" at the bottom, then continue around the circle back to "A")
Theme and Variations
A form that presents a musical "theme" and then a series of variations on that theme:
- Theme 1 - Variation 1 - Variation 2 - Variation 3 - Variation 4 (etc.)
Form in which a theme is repeated over and over and is changed each time in melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, or tone color; used as an independent piece or as a movement of a larger work
single movement that consists of three main sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation
themes are presented; strong conflict between tonic and new key, and first theme and second theme
a section which leads from the first theme in the tonic key to the second theme in a new key
second section of a sonata-form movement in which themes from the exposition are developed and the music moves through several different keys
fragment of a theme or a short musical idea which is developed within a composition
third section of a sonata-form movement, in which the first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding section are presented more or less as in the exposition; all principal material is in tonic key
melodic idea that accompanies a main theme
from the beginning
compositional form featuring a main theme A that returns several times in alternation with other themes: ABACA and ABACABA. There is a 5-part Rondo (A B A C A) used in slower movements, and a 7-part Rondo (A B A C A B A) used in faster movements.
Compositional form that combines the repeating theme of rondo form with a development section similar to sonata form; ABA-development-ABA
orchestral composition, usually in four movements; typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes; exploits the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of orchestra
extended composition for instrumental soloist and orchestra; usually in three movements: fast, slow, fast
eighteenth-century or early nineteenth-century piano, which differs from the modern piano in sound and construction
mass for the dead