Mediators released systemically (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, kinins, serotonin)
- Food, drugs, blood, iodine contrast, venoms, animal sera (tetanus, rabies, diphtheria, snake venom, antitoxins)
10 % = None.
20% = No Sx at rest,
Tachycardia w exercise + slight postural hypotension.
30% = Normal supine BP, Pulse, Tachycardia w exercise + postural hypotension.
40% = BP, CVP, CO ⬇ at rest,
Dyspnea, Cold + clammy,
Rapid thread pulse.
50% = Shock, lactic acidosis, death
Etiology: •(Penicious): most common- Absence of IF, GI surgery, Chronic disease of GI tract, Excessive alcoholic/hot tea , Smoking, Long tern user of H2- histamine receptor blockers + proton pump inhibitors, Strict vegetarians.
• Sore tongue, anorexia, N/V, abdominal pain
• Weakness, parathesia of feet + hands, ⬇ vibratory + position senses, ataxia, muscle weakness, impaired thought process