53 terms

Chapter 4

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public school
school supported by taxes
Puritan laws regarding education
parents were required to teach their children and servants to read; any town with at least 50 families must start an elementary school; any town with 100 or more families must start a grammar school
colonial schools
taught religion, reading writing and arithmetic
hornbook
paddle-shaped board with a printed lesson on top - used in colonial schools
dame schools
schools that women opened in their homes to teach girls and boys to read and write
Harvard
first college in the English colonies which opened in 1638
Anne Bradstreet
the first colonial poet
Phillis Weatley
an enslaved African in Boston who later became a poet
Benjamin Franklin
started a paper called the Pennsylvania Gazette which became the most widely read paper in the colonies; he also wrote Poor Richard's Almanack which included many sayings with a moral
The Great Awakening
an emotion packed Christian movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s as a reaction against what some Christians saw as a decline of religious zeal in the colonies
Jonathan Edwards
preacher from Massachusetts who called on people to examine their lives and commit themselves to God
Impact of the Great Awakening
led to the rise of many new churches which led to more tolerance of religious differences in the colonies
Enlightenment
during the late 1600s a group of European thinkers came to believe that all problems can be solved by human reason; they looked for natural laws to governed politics, society, and economics
Locke
argued that people have certain natural rights which included life, liberty and property; he believed these rights were inalienable - they cannot be taken away
natural rights
rights that belong to every human from birth
divine right
the belief that monarchs get their authority to rule directly from God
Montesquieu
a French thinker who argued that the powers of government should be clearly defined and limited; he favored separation of powers and believed that government should be divided into 3 branches - legislative, executive and judicial
separation of powers
division of the power of government into separate branches
How did education differ for boys and girls?
Boys received more education than girls and studied a wider variety of subjects.
How did Benjamin Franklin contribute to American literature?
He published a newspaper, an almanac, and a popular autobiography.
bill of rights
a written list of freedoms that a government promises to protect
habeas corpus
the principle that a person cannot be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime
freedom of the press
the right of journalists to publish the truth without restriction or penalty
libel
the publishing of statements that damage a person's reputation
Magna Carta
first document to place restrictions on an English ruler's powers
Parliament
two house legislature in England - the House of Lords and House of Commons
House of Lords
nobles who inherited the titles
House of Commons
elected by rich man and landowners
legislature
group of people who have the power to make laws
How was the power of the English monarchs limited?
The monarch needed Parliament's permission to raise taxes or an army.
Which groups were permitted to vote in colonial elections? Which were not permitted to vote?
More than half of the white males were permitted to vote, but women, Native Americans, and African Americans could not vote.
Why was the Zenger case important?
The trial established the principle that the press has the right and responsibility to inform the public of the truth.
Why did many colonists resent the Navigation Acts?
The colonists believed the acts hurt them economincaliy.
extended family
a family that includes, in addition to the parents and their children, other members such as grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins
men
controlled family's income and property; could hold office and vote
women
childcare, cooking, laundry; could not vote or hold office
children
under age 7 could play; 7 and older were required to work
apprentice
someone who learns a trade by working for someone in that trade for a certain time period
gentry
upper class of colonial society; wealthy planters, merchants, minister, lawyers
middle class
majority of colonists fell into this category; small planters, independent farmers and artisans
indentured servant
signed a contract to work 4 to 10 years in the colonies for anyone who would pay for his or her ocean passage to America
Free African Americans
were allowed to own property and become slave owners; some purchased relatives who were enslaved and set them free
Why was a large family useful on a farm?
Members of a large family could each perform some of the many tasks that had to be done on a large farm.
How did the jobs of boys and girls differ?
Boys tended to do more field work with men, and girls usually did housework alongside women. Boys sometimes also lived away from home as apprentices to learn a trade. Girls sometimes became servants in wealthy households.
How might one become a member of the middle class?
After completing a term as an indentured servant, one could build a successful farm, or one might be a merchant with a failing business who becomes an artisan.
Middle Passage
the brutal voyage that carried captured people across the Atlantic from the West African coast to slavery in the Americas
15 to 20%
percent of captured people that died during the Middle Passage
triangular trade
three -way trade between the colonies, the islands of the Caribbean and Africa
plantation system
major reason why slavery took root; thousands of workers were needed to work the fields
racism
the belief that one race is superior or inferior to another
slave codes
strict laws that restricted the rights and activities of slaves in order to prevent revolt
examples of slave codes
could not meet in large numbers, could not own weapons, could not leave plantation without permission, illegal to teach enslaved people to read or write, master who killed a slave could not be tried for murder
cultural influence brought by African to America
drums, banjo, folk tales, quilts furniture, carved walking sticks