Psychology Midterm 2 - Chapter 4

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Consciousness
The moment by moment experiences
Attention
Conscious Awareness. Involves being able to focus selectively on some things and avoid focusing on others
Locked in Syndrome
When all or nearly all of a person's voluntary muscles are paralyzed
Cocktail Party Phenomenon
Ability to focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic cocktail party. However, if you hear your name mentioned in another conversation or hear a juicy piece of gossip—your attention is captured.
Shadowing
In this procedure, the participant receives a different auditory message in each ear. The participant is required to repeat only one of the messages.
Selective Listening Experiment
Used to examine what the mind does with unattended information when a person pays attention to one task
Donald Broadbent
He developed the filter theory to explain the selective nature of attention
Filter Theory
Assuming that people have a limited capacity for sensory information. People screen incoming information to only let in the most important material
Change Blindness
Being "blind" to large changes in our environment
Subliminal Perception
The processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awarness
Freudian Slip
Occurs when an unconscious thought is suddenly expressed at an inappropriate time or social context
Global Workspace Model
Says that consciousness arises as a function of which the brain circuits are active
Persistant Vegetative State
In this state, people have sleep/wake cycles—they open their eyes and appear to be awake, close their eyes and appear to be asleep—but they do not seem to respond to their surroundings. Lasts for more than a month
Minimally Conscious State
In this state, people with brain injuries are able to make some deliberate movements, such as following an object with their eyes. They may try to communicate.
Split Brain
When the massive fiber bundle between the hemispheres is severed, the brains halves are almost completely isolated from each other
Corpus Callosum
Millions of axons that connect hemispheres and allows information to flow through
Intepreter
This term means that the left hemisphere is interpreting what the right hemisphere has done with only the information that is available to it
Circadian Rhythms
Patterns of brain activity and other psychological processes. Body temperature, hormone levels, and sleep/wake cycles operate by these, that are influenced by light and dark.
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
A small region in the hypothalamus that detects information about light in the eyes
Pineal Gland
Tiny structure located deep inside the center of the brain. Secretes melatonin which helps maintain circadian rhythms and regulate reproductive hormones
Alert Wakefulness
When people are in this stage and the EEG shows short, frequent, irregular brain signals known as beta waves
Producing Alpha Waves
When people really focus their attention on something or when they close their eyes and relax, brain activity slows and becomes more regular, which will produce _________ waves
Stage 1 of Sleep
A person would be drifting off during this stage. EEG will show Theta waves. If you are awakened during this stage, you will probably deny being asleep.
Stage 2 of Sleep
Breathing becomes more regular during this stage and a person becomes less sensitive to external stimulation. EEG will continue to show theta waves but also bursts of activity called sleep swindles and large waves called K- complexes
Stage 3 and 4 of Sleep
These stages are seen as one now because brain activity is nearly identical. Large, regular brain patterns called delta waves, often referred to as slow wave sleep. A person would most likely be hard to wake up during this stage and would be disoriented if they did
REM Sleep
Sometimes called paradoxical sleep because it is a sleeping body with an active brain. The body is paralyzed but a person eyes will likely dart back and forth rapidly beneath closed eyelids. EEG will show a flurry of beta waves that represents an awake, alert mind.
Insomnia
Sleep disorder in which peoples mental health and ability to function are compromised by their ability to sleep
Narcolepsy
Excessive sleepiness that occurs during normal waking hours
REM Behavior Disorder
Opposite of narcolepsy. Normal paralysis that accompanies REM is disabled, people often act our their dreams while sleeping
Somnambulism
Sleep walking that occurs during slow wave sleep, usually within the first two hours of falling asleep
Restorative Theory
Theory that says sleep allows the body, including the brain, to rest and repair itself
Circadian Rhythm Theory
Theory suggests that sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet/inactive during times of the day that is of the greatest danger, usually when its dark
Learning and Sleep
When research participants sleep after learning, their recall is better than in control conditions where participants remain awake
Dreams
The products of an altered state of consciousness, it's one of life's greatest mysteries
REM Dreams
Dreams that are more likely to be bizarre
Non REM Dreams
Dreams that are often dull
Sigmund Freud and Dreams
This person speculated that dreams contain hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts within the mind of the dreamer
Manifest Content
The dream the way that the dreamer remembers it
Latent Content
What the dream symbolizes
Activation Synthesis Theory
Proposed by John Hobson and Robert McCarley. Theorized that random brain activity occurs during sleep and that this neural firing can activate mechanisms that normally interpret sensory input
Hypnosis
Social interaction during which a person, responding to a suggestion, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action
Posthypnotic suggestion
Usually accompanied by the instruction to not remember the suggestion.
Socio Cognitive Theory of Hypnosis
Hypnotized people behave as they expect hypnotized people to behave, even if those expectations are faulty
Neodissociation Theory of Hypnosis
Acknowledges the importance of social context to hypnosis, but it views the hypnotic state as an altered state
Hypnotic Analgesia
One of the most powerful uses for hypnosis. A form of pain reduction
Meditation
Mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or on a sense of awareness
Concentrative Meditation
Focusing your attention on one thing, such as breathing patterns, mental images, or specific phrases (called Mantras)
Mindfulness Meditation
Letting thoughts flow freely, paying attention to the but not reacting to them
Runners High
One minute a person is in pain and feeling fatigued, and the next minute they are euphoric and feeling a glorious release of energy.
Religious Ecstasy
Religious ceremonies that decrease awareness of the external world and create feelings of euphoria
Flow
A particular kind of experience that is so engrossing and enjoyable that it is worth doing for its own sake even though it may have no consequences outside itself
Psychoactive Drugs
Mind altering substances that people typically take for recreational purposes
Stimulants
Drugs that increase behavioral and mental activity (such as mild doses of caffeine)
Depressants
Opposite of stimulants. They reduce behavioral and mental activity by depressing the central nervous system
Opiates
Narcotics. Includes heroin, morphine, and codeine. Provides relief of pain but also feelings of intense pressure, relaxation, or euphoria.
Most widely used depressant and abused drug
Alcohol
Hallucinogens
Sometimes called psychedelics, produce alterations in cognition, mood, and perception.
Most common hallucinogen
LSD
Dopamine
Serves many significant brain functions, especially motivation and reward. Enhances control of voluntary movement
Amphetamines
Stimulants that increase dopamine in the synapse. Primary effect is to reduce fatigue, can treat ADHD. Adderall has this in it
Methamphetamine
Stimulant that breaks down into amphetamine in the body. Lasts longer and easy to make (as shown in breaking bad)
Cocaine
Stimulant derived from leaves of a coca bush in South America. Produces wave of confidence
Alcohol
Depressant that produces its effects by activating GABA receptors
Marijuana
Most widely used illicit drug in the world. Dried leaves and flower buds of a cannabis plant. Can have effects of a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen
THC
Tetrahydrocannabinol. This chemical produces a relaxed mental state, an uplifted or contented mood, and some perceptual and cognitive distortions.
Cannabinoid Receptors
Activated by naturally occurring THC like substances. Appears to adjust mental activity and perhaps alter pain perception. The large concentration of these receptors in the hippocampus may partly explain why marijuana impairs memory
MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)
Produces energizing effects like a stimulant, but can also cause hallucinations
Serotonin
Involved in a wide range of psychological actives. Especially important for emotional states, impulse control, and dreaming
Addiction
Drug use that remains compulsive despite its negative consequences
Tolerance
A person needing to consume more of a substance to achieve the effect of it
Withdrawal
A physiological and psychological state characterized by feelings of anxiety, tension, and cravings for the addictive substance
Overt Attention
Directing attention by moving eyes (and/or head/body)
Covert attention
Directing attention without moving eyes/head/body
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