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dumelow chapter 10
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What variations in the experience of African and Asian Christian communities can you identify?
A.) In much of Arabia, the Near East, and coastal North Africa, the arrival of Islam led to widespread voluntary conversion of Christians to the Muslim faith
B.)For the most part, the surviving communities in these region were guaranteed the right to practice their religion with restrictions on some activities
C.) Christianity spread into new religions, including China, Nubia, and Ethiopia, but only in Ethiopia did it ultimately
survive and thrive
D.)In Egypt and NUbia, Christians experienced increased oppression from the 13th century leading to a decline in the Egyptian Coptic CHurch and the disappearance of the Nubian Church
In what respects did Byzantium continue the patterns of the classical Roman Empire? In what ways did it diverge from those patterns?
A) Continuance can be seen in Byzantium's roads, military structures , centralized administration, imperial court, laws and Christian organization. It can also be seen in Byzantium's pursuit of the long-term Roman struggle with the long-term struggle with the persian Empire.
B.) Byzantium diverged through the development of a reformed administrative system that gave appointed general civil authority in the empire's provinces and allowed them to raise armies from the landowning peasants of the region. It also diverged through the new ideas encompassed in caesaropapism (political theory that says the emperor is also the head f the church).
How did Eastern Orthodox Christianity differ from Roman Catholicism?
-Easter Orthodox Church: the Byzantine emperor was head of the church and the state; Greek language used; priests allowed their beards to grow long and marry; the 2 churched debated over the nature of Jesus and his relationship to the Trinity and whether or not icons should be used as representations of God and Jesus.
-Roman Catholic Church: pope was the leader of the Roman Catholic Church; Latin language used; priests shaved and after 1050 or so, were supposed to remain celibate; the 2 churched debated over the nature of Jesus and his relationship to the representations of God and Jesus.
In what ways was the Byzantine Empire linked to a wider world?
Byzantium continue the Roman Empire's conflict with the Persian Empire Economically, Byzantium was a central player in the long-distance trade of Eurasia. Culturally, Byzantine libraries preserved Greek texts from the golden age Hellenic. In the ninth century, two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, developed a writing system for the Slavs based on Greek letters. This allowed for the translation of the Bible and the spreading of the faith in the Balkans and Russia.
How did links to Byzantium transform the new civilization of Kievan Rus?
-The use of icons, architectural style, Cyrillic alphabet, a monastic tradition stressing prayer and service, and political ideals of imperial control of the church.
What replaced the Roman order in western Europe?
-Politically: A series of regional kingdoms ruled by germanic warlords even though they kept written Ronan law, fines, and penalties.
-Socially: a social system developed that was based on reciprocal ties between greater and lesser lords among the warrior elites.
Slavery: gave way to serfdom.
Religiously- Roman Catholic Church's influence increased.
In what ways was European civilization changing after 1000?
-Demographic growth (towns grew)
-Significant population growth
-Revival of trade route
_Specilization of labor and professions
-Some kingdoms in the northwest developed large land bases
-City-state characterized Italy
-Small states dominated the German lands
-Women: in the beginning, economic growth opened up opportunities for women in both the labor force and the church
-Men: men reasserted control and either removed women from certain trades or downgrading their role so women lost control over certain church to men from the clergy
-Roman catholic Church: expanded in areas in which Roman Catholicism was practiced in which Roman Catholicism was practiced into Eastern Europe and islamic Spain
What was the impact of the crusades in world history
-Western Christendom: expanding
-Eastern Christendom and Byzantium: declining
-Stimulated the demand for Asian luxury goods in Europe Muslim scholarship (with the Greek learning that it -Incorporated: flowed into Europe
-Cultural Barriers between Eastern Orthodox and Roman catholicism: Grew worse
-Christian anti-Semitism: increased
In what ways did borrowing from abroad shape European civilization after 1000?
-New plows, horse hardnesses, and crop rotation techniques increases grain production, which allowed for population growth, developed of a surplus, and labor specialization. Wind and watermills.
-Maritime technology: developed of cannons and the use of magnetic compasses shipbuilding, advances in sails and rudders, and navigations techniques.
Why was Europe unable to achieve the kind of political unity that China experienced? What impact did this have on the subsequent history of Europe?
-Political conflict developed between the heads of state, the international reach of the church in Rome, and nobles
-Geographical barriers, ethnic and linguistic diversity, and the shifting balances of power among Europe's many states
In what different ways did classical Greek philosophy and science have an impact in the West, in Byzantium, and in the Islamic world?
-A new interest in applying reason to explain the world and to explain the christian faith. this sparked new interest in greek philosophy and science. European scholars obtained copies of Greek texts from both the Byzantine and Islamic world.
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