89 terms

Humanities: Classical China, Greece & Rome

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Himalayas
mountains forming western border for classical China
Pacific
ocean providing eastern border of China
Yellow River
river along which ancient China formed, also known as the Huang-He
Shang
China's first dynasty
Farmers
most common occupation in China during the Shang dynasty (as well as all classical dynasties)
North
the Great Wall of China was built along this border of China
Oracle bones
China's earliest writing was found on these
Ancestor veneration
concept in Chinese culture reflecting the importance of deceased relatives
Bronze
casting of this metal reflected China's advanced technological developments
Zhou
China's first classical dynasty, also first introduced the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
losing this in Chinese culture justified a change in power (which would often be indicated by a natural disaster)
Qin
dynasty from which the name China originates, also most associated with legalism
Shang, Zhou, Qin Han
chronological order of ancient and classical Chinese dynasties
Great Wall
defense structure first introduced by the Qin dynasty
Terra Cotta
Qin dynasty commissioned a tomb with warriors made of this material
Han
last classical Chinese dynasty, also the classical golden age
Silk Road
land trade route whose name is associated with a Chinese luxury item, linked the classical civilizations
Calendar
intellectual development that helped farmers know when to plant and harvest their crops
Paper and books
being able to document their ideas on these materials allowed China to make tremendous advancements during the classical era
Confucianism
most influential philosophy in China: stated that everyone should show respect for those above them in the social hierarchy and set a good example for those below them
Filial piety
the most important relationship in Confucianism, refers to respect toward parents
Daoism
religion meaning "the way"
Yin-yang
symbol of Daoism
Lao Tzu
individual who created Daoism
Confucius
individual who created Confucianism
Qi
the "life force" of Daoism
Feng Shui
architecture with Daoist influence
Tai chi
martial art with Daoist influence
Acupuncture
medical theory with Daoist influence
Legalism
Chinese philosophy that believes people are evil and must learn how to be good
Isolation
this characteristic helps us understand why China created so many inventions in its early stages
Centralized
term describing China's government historically; one of the key reasons China is the only relatively continuous civilization (from the ancient era)
"Middle Kingdom"
term reflecting the Chinese belief that they were the center of civilization and the most advanced society (came about in part because they were relatively isolated)
"River of Sorrows"
informal name given to the Yellow River, because it required so much labor caused much tragedy
Dynastic cycle
term reflecting the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties, and the pattern they typically followed
Social order, good government
the two worldly goals that were the focus on Confucianism
Calligraphy
the name of China's writing system, evolved from oracle bones
Civil service exam
test required to become a Chinese government official, beginning in the Han dynasty
Buddhism
world religion that started to become influential in China by the end of the classical era
Mountains, islands
geographic forms that contribute to Greece's political structure
City-states
type of political structure in Greece, includes an urban area and the surrounding countryside
Helots
slaves in Greek society
Women, slaves, non-citizens
these groups couldn't participate in democracy in Athens
Direct democracy
type of political system in Athens: citizens directly participated in political affairs
Ostracism
practice in Athens societies in which a public figure perceived to be a threat was banished for 10 years
Socratic method
posing questions and challenging thinkers to critique their ideas
Opposed
Were Athenian philosophers generally in favor of or opposed to democracy?
Herodotus
considered the "Father of History"
Alexander the Great
his conquests helped to spread Greek culture
Atlas
book of maps, from story about god who was forced to hold up the sky for eternity
Achilles heel
term referring to a weakness or vulnerability
Herculean effort
something that is extremely difficult or requires great strength
Midas touch
something that appears to be a blessing but turns out to be a curse
Titanic
large and/or imposing
Odyssey
a long, adventurous journey
Nike
goddess of victory
Egypt
ancient civilization with the strongest influence on Greece
Agora
Greek marketplace
Religious themes, celebration of humanity
subject matter typical of Greek art
Acropolis
structures on a hill in a Greek city-state; for Athens, included the Parthenon
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
the types of Greek columns (be sure to be able to identify each type)
Entablature
"tabletop" of Greek architecture, just above columns
Pediment
triangular section of Greek architecture
Parthenon
most famous building from classical Greece, was a temple that also reflected Athen's civic pride
Comedy, tragedy
the two forms of Greek theater
Socrates
Plato's teacher
Plato
Aristotle's teacher, wrote Allegory of the Cave
Aristotle
Alexander the Great's teacher
Empirical observation
tradition of gaining knowledge through the senses, introduced by the Greeks
Totalitarianism
political system using force and power to rule its people
Empire
Rome's type of political structure after its republic phase
Olives, grapes
Greece and Rome's primary exports
Slaves
lowest social class in classical Greece and Rome
Succession issue
caused frequent turnover in leadership within the Roman empire, created because Roman citizens did not intend to create an empire
Polytheism
the type of religion endorsed in classical Greece and Rome
Pantheon
the most famous religious temple in classical Rome
Christianity
the world religion that was established during the Roman empire
Jesus, not the emperor, was divine
the main reason Roman emperors felt threatened by and persecuted Christians
Spiritual equality
a big reason Christianity gained converts during the classical era, especially among the lower classes
Martyr
someone who is persecuted for their beliefs: the Roman empire's treatment of this group contributed to Christianity's growing influence
Assimilation
the process by which people adopt the customs of the prevailing culture and/or are absorbed into another culture
Gladiator contests
popular form of entertainment in the Roman empire
Amphitheater
type of structure used for gladiator contests
Circus
type of structure used for chariot races
Latin
official language of the Roman empire
Aqueducts
system for getting water to Roman cities
Pax Romana
means Roman peace: referring to a period of about 200 years, when the Roman empire was relatively peaceful and thriving culturally and economically
"Bread and circuses"
refers to the "bandaid" program adopted by the Roman government to provide enough grain to its population and to distract them with frequent entertainment
Germanic tribes
defeated the Roman empire