41 terms

Chapter 6 Test- Physical Science

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periodic table
The _____ represents a system of classifying or logically grouping all of the known elements.
Dimitri Mendeleev
_____ uncovered a huge collection of facts about the 63 elements that had been discovered in the mid-1800s.
valence or valence number
The _____ of an element indicates the number of elements that will be lost, gained or shared in the bonding process.
atomic mass
Mendeleev designed a periodic table in which the elements were arranged in order of increasing _____.
periodic
The word ____ means repeating according to a pattern.
Henry Moseley
____ determined the atomic numbers of the elements and the modern periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers.
The periodic law
_____ states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.
1. what group
2. what period
3. physical & chemical properties
4. valence electrons
list 2 things you can tell from an element's position on the periodic table:
18
There are ____ main columns of elements.
groups or families
Columns of elements are called _____.
periods
_____ are horizontal rows of elements.
7
There are _____ periods of elements.
Metals or metal like
Elements to the left of the zigzag line are ____
Nonmetals
Elements to the right of the zigzag lines are ____.
1. luster or shininess
2. high density
3. good conductors of heat & electricity
4. high melting points
list 4 physical properties of medal:
luster
_____ or shininess
ductile
_____ can be drawn out into wires
malleable
______ can be hammered into thin sheets
1. corrosion
2. tend to lose electrons
list 2 chemical properties of metals:
corrosion
_____ is the gradual wearing away of a metal due to a chemical reaction in which the metal element is changed into a metallic compound. example- iron rusting
1. dull in appearance; no luster
2. poor conductors of heat and electricity
3. low densities
4. low melting point
5. not malleable
list 4 physical properties of nonmetals:
brittle
_____ breaks easily
tend to gain electrons
list a chemical property of nonmetals:
metalloids
_____ can be found on both sides of the zigzag line and they have properties of both metals and nonmetals
alkali metals
elements in group 1 with the exception of hydrogen are called _____.
alkaline earth metals
group 2 elements have 2 valence electrons and are called ___.
transition metals
groups 3-12 elements have 1 or 2 valence electrons and are called _____.
boron family
group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons and are in the _____.
carbon family
group 14 elements have 4 valence electrons are called the ____.
nitrogen family
group 15 elements have 5 valence electrons and is called the ______.
oxygen family
group 16 elements and have 6 valence electrons and are in the _____.
nitrogen
_____ makes up 78% of the air.
halogens
group 17 elements have 7 valence electrons and are called _____.
most active nonmetals
halogens are the _____.
noble gases
group 18 have 8 valence electrons and are called _____.
oxygen
_____ is the most abundant elements in the Earth´s crust
neon
_____ is used in brightly colored signs.
radon
_____ is used to treat cancer.
rare earth elements
_____ are the 2 rows of elements standing alone at the bottom of the periodic table.
lanthanoid series
the first row is called the _____ and is made up of soft malleable metals that have a high luster and conductivity.
actinoid series
2nd row is called the ____ and all of the elements in it are radioactive.