44 terms

PLTW-HBS Unit 5

Project Lead the Way-Human Body Systems, Unit 5 vocab terms
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Collagen
An insoluble fibrous protein of vertebrates that is the chief constituent of the birils of connective tissue (as in skin and tendons) and of the organic substance of bones.
Connective Tissue
Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix.
Dermis
The sensititive vascular inner mesodermic layer of the skin.
Elastin
A protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers.
Endorphin
A hormone produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibts pain perception.
Epidermis
The outer nonsensitive and nonvascular layer of the skin of a vertebrate that overlies the dermis.
Epithelium
A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.
Exocrine Gland
A gland (as a sweat gland, a salivary gland, or a kidney) that releases a secretion external to or at the surface of an organ by means of a canal or duct.
First-degree Burn
A mild burn characterized by heat, pain, and reddening of the burned surface but not exhibiting blistering or charring of tissues.
Keratin
Any of various sulfur-containing fibrous proteins that form the chemical basis of epidermal tissues (as hair and nails( and are typically not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract.
Melanin
Any of various black, dark brown, reddish brown, or yellow pigments of animal or plant structures (as in skin or hair).
Pain
Basic bodily sensation that is induced by a noxious stimulus, is recieved by naked nerve endings, is characterized by physical discomfort (as pricking, throbbing, or aching), and typically leads to evasive action.
Sebaceous Gland
Any of the small sacculated glands lodged in the substance of the derma, usually opening into the hair follicles, and secreting an oily or greasy material composed in great part of fat which softens and lubricates the hair and skin.
Second-degree Burn
A burn marked by pain, blistering, and superficial destruction of dermis with edema and hyperemia of the tissues beneath the burn.
Third-degree Burn
Severe burn characterized by destruction of the skin through the depth of the dermis and possibly into underlying tissues, loss of fluid, and sometimes shock.
Bone Marrow
A soft highly vascular modified connective tissue that occupies the cavities and cancellous part of most bones and occurs in two forms- yellow and red.
Bone Remodeling
The continuous turnouver of bone matrix and mineral that involves first, an increase in reabsorption and osteoclast activity, and later, reactive bone formation by osteoblast activity.
Calcitonin
A polypeptide hormone especially from the thyroid gland that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma.
Callus
A growth of new bone tissue in and around a fractured area, ultimately replaced by mature bone.
Cartilage
A usually translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures (as some joints, respiratory passages, and the external ear) is replaced by bone during ossifcation in the higher vertebrates.
Compact Bone
Bone tissue that contains few spaces between osteons; forms the external portion of all bones and the bulk of the diaphysis (shaft) of long bones.
Diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone.
Epiphysis
The end of a long bone, usually larger in diameter than the shaft.
Fracture
The breaking of hard tissue (as bone).
Osteoblast
A bone-forming cell.
Osteoclast
Any of the large multinucleate cells closely associated with areas of bone reabsorption (as in a fracture that is healing).
Osteocyte
Cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance.
Parathyroid Hormone
A hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
Spongy (cancellous) Bone
Bone tissue that consists of an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae; found inside short, flat, and irregular bones and in the epiphysis of long bone.
Agglutination
Clumping of microorganisms or blood cells, typically due to an antigen-antibody interaction.
Alleles
Alternate forms of a single gene that control the same inherited trait (such as type A blood) and are located at the same position on homologous chromosomes.
Antibody
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
Antigen
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and elicts an immune response.
B Lymphocyte (B Cell)
A type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and later produces antibodies, which mediate humoral immunity.
Blood type (group)
One of the classes (as A, B, AB, or O) into which individual vertebrates and especially human beings or their blood can be separated on the basis of the presence or absense of specific antigens in the blood.
Immunity
A condition of being able to resist a particular disease especially through preventing development of a pathogenic microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products.
Lymph
A usually clear fluid that passes from intercellular spaces of body tissue into the lymphatic vessels, is discharged into the blood by way of the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, and resembles blood plasma in containing white blood cells and especially lymphocytes but normally few red blood cells and no platelets.
Lymph Node
Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph passing through the node.
Lymphocyte
Any of the colorless weakly motile cells that originate from stem cells and differentiate in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow), that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, that include the cellular mediators of immunity, and that constitue 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.
Macrophage
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis.
Memory Cell
A long-lived lymphocyte that carries the anitbody or receptor for a specific antigen after a first exposure to the antigen and that remains in a less than mature state until stimulated by a second exposure to the antigen at which time it mounts a more effective immune response than a cell which has not been exposed previously.
Pathogen
A specific causative agent (as a bacterium or virus) of disease.
Pedigree
A diagram of a family tree showing the heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
T Lymphocyte (T Cells)
A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.