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Psychology 10- Chapter 6(Memory)
Terms in this set (49)
BROADLY, HOW DOES MEMORY WORK?
Encoding: the information gets
into our brains in a way that allows
it to be stored
Storage: the information is held in
a way that allows it to later be
Retrieval: reactivating and
recalling the information
LEVELS OF PROCESSING (LOP)
Craik & Lockhart (1972)
Encoding of information into memory is a dynamic
◦ what we remember is a function of how we process
◦ Intention (trying) is not enough!
DEEPER PROCESSING --> BETTER ENCODING
(more likely to get stored)
◦ Chunking = group items into meaningful chunks
◦ "Mnemonics" = using mental imagery & other wellknown
cues, method of loci
◦ Making memory personally meaningful
◦ Hierarchies = organizing information
◦ Distributed Practice = spacing effect!
Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording
of sensory information before it is processed into shortterm
or long-term memory.
◦ Iconic memory is the visual sensory register
◦ Echoic memory is the auditory sensory register
We very briefly capture a sensory memory, analogous
to an echo or an image, of all the sensations we take in.
◦ 3 to 4 s. echo
◦ 1/20th s. image
Evidence of Visual Sensory (Iconic) Memory:
George Sperling's Experiments
George Sperling (b. 1934)
exposed people to a 1/20th of-asecond
view of a grid of letters,
followed by a tone which told
them which row of letters to pull
from iconic memory and recall.
Without the tone, people
recalled about 50 percent of the
letters; with the tone, recall for
any of the rows was typically 100
SHORT TERM MEMORY
Used to keep track of what is currently relevant
◦ Limited capacity
◦ Short duration
STM = the "space" used to hold information presently required
WM = manipulation of that information for whatever task you are doing
◦ Maintenance vs. elaborative rehearsal
LONG TERM MEMORY (LTM)
oMemory that persists over time without conscious
oEvents in your life, facts about the world, motor skills,
o"Long term" sometimes means a few minutes- doesn't
have to be years
oCan last indefinitely
oCan be retrieved and brought into working memory
(but we might lose the ability to access that memory)
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
Serial position effects can be evidence for
separate short versus long term memory
USING ALL KINDS OF MEMORY FOR
how is memory involved in doing mental arithmetic?
◦ short-term and working memory
◦ holds information about the particular problem
◦ applies the rules and strategies retrieved from long-term
memory to the present information
◦ transiently stores intermediate outcomes and final solution
◦ long-term memory
◦ rules of arithmetic
◦ learned strategies for solving problems
organized knowledge structure or
mental model that we've stored in memory
◦ Schemas give us frames of reference and allow us to
interpret new situations
◦ Useful, but tend to oversimplify information
◦ Strong example of why the paradox of memory exists
• The same mechanisms that serve us well most of the
time can cause us problems in others
NOT like playback of a video
Retrieval depends on cues/hints that help bring
information to mind
◦ They can be more or less effective
◦ Transfer appropriate processing
◦ Encoding specificity
◦ State dependent learning
◦ Context effects
TRANSFER APPROPRIATE PROCESSING
Morris, Bransford & Franks (1977)
Compatibility between encoding and retrieval
Deep, semantic not inherently better, more
compatible with typical memory tests
E.g., want to improve pronunciation of words
◦ attention to phonology better than attention to meaning
Transfer Appropriate Processing
o Effectiveness of encoding depends on manner in
which memory is tested
ohigher potential memory performance
orealization of potential depends on compatibility
between encoding and retrieval
CONTEXT AND MEMORY
Context helps retrieval
◦ Context may be many different things
◦ Other words on list
◦ Internal state at the time of encoding
◦ Environmental cues such as odors or sounds
The more similar the retrieval situation is to the
encoding situation, the better retrieval
◦ Similarity of retrieval to encoding can override level of
processing ("transfer-appropriate processing")
The effects of studying and
◦ Test taking and similar context
◦ Use of imagery and mental
Are there benefits of
◦ Always study at the same
◦ Different context leads to
more retrieval cues?
How to measure what you know?
◦ Name everything you need to buy at the market
◦ You see a tomato and decide whether it was on your
◦ Savings/Reaction time measures
◦ Can you learn something faster the second time around?
• knowing "what"
• expressed verbally
• conscious awareness
• a.k.a. "Explicit Memory"
• knowing "how"
• expressed behaviorally
• awareness not necessary
• a.k.a. "Implicit Memory"
• discrete events
• specific time, place
• personally experienced
• "What did you eat for breakfast?"
•Prospective memory?: future events
o return book (event-based)
o doctors appt (time-based)
• general knowledge
• e.g. "Who was the first US
• motor - bike riding
• cognitive - reading
• increased fluency
• perceptual, conceptual
MEMORY AND THE BRAIN
Multiple brain regions have
been implicated in memory.
◦ Prefrontal cortex
◦ Temporal lobes
◦ The brain structures involved
may act as an index
◦ link together aspects of a single memory
◦ Importance may decrease with time
-crucial for memory formation
◦ Anterograde amnesia is
◦ Process by which memories become stable in the brain
◦ May be a fast type (seconds or minutes) and a longer
term type (days, weeks, etc.)
◦ Can be boosted by revisiting, sleep
◦ Reconsolidation: when a memory is recalled, it
becomes vulnerable to disruption/change before it is
consolidated again (evidence from animals)
What about at the level of neurons?
o Long term potentiation: a process whereby
communication across the synapse strengthens the
connection, making further communication easier
o Blocking LTP impairs memory formation
"Cells that fire together wire together"
THE "SEVEN SINS" OF MEMORY
4. Memory misattribution
• Of the forgetting that will
happen, most happens fast!
• Specific --> General
• See War of the Ghosts
• Memories are susceptible
*The names of the "sins" refer
to concepts, so you don't have
to remember the names per se.
When you can't remember where you parked your car
this morning at UCLA.
You spend two years learning French. You then take a
trip to Italy and are able to pick up some "tourist Italian".
Coming back, you end up using Italian words when
talking to your French classmates.
You have trouble learning Italian because you keeping
confusing it with the French you already know.
old learning gets in the way of new
new learning gets in the way of old
Lapses in attention, sometimes due to divided
Failures in prospective memory
◦ Remembering what you need to do in the future
Failing to recall something, even when you know it!
Making a source memory error
◦ Ex. Forgetting who you told a joke to
◦ Or worse...
The Ronald Cotton Case:
◦ Jennifer Thomas was attacked. She intentionally encoded
the face of the man. Then...
The tendency to incorporate misleading
information into memories
THE MISINFORMATION EFFECT
(Loftus & Palmer, 1974)
Subjects watched a film about traffic safety that
showed an accident
Later asked some questions about the video
◦ How fast were the cars going when they
hit/contacted/smashed each other?
LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF MISINFORMATION
1 week later, subjects were asked, "Was there glass on
the ground after the accident?"
◦ 14% of "hit" group said yes
◦ 34% of "smashed group said yes
(There actually wasn't any glass)
BRAUN, ELLIS, & LOFTUS (2002)
Planted memory study: Met Bugs Bunny at Disneyland
Your current knowledge/beliefs can affect how you
remember the past
Can be self-serving- you might remember your high
school grades as higher than they actually were!
On pre-course survey, 92% agreed with: While some memories get
weaker with time, we have accurate "flashbulb memories" (vivid
memories that seem "seared" into our minds) of traumatic or important
events (e.g., 9/11)
Do you remember where you were on 9/11/01?
When Michael Jackson died?
Your grandparents- Kennedy assassination
Are the "sins" of memory
• With transience (forgetting)- do you really want to remember
EVERYTHING from your life? The embarrassing moments? The painful
• When you rely on schemas (remember War of the Ghosts?), you are
• When you are being "absentminded", are you just focusing on
something more important?
• Memory misattribution/suggestibility result when we forget specific
details, and somewhat flexibly fill them in- could be good for thinking
about future possibilities?
• Bias- maybe remembering things in a better light makes us happier?
• Persistence- could be adaptive to avoid dangers in the future?
Porsha is wondering how to remember her new
password. She realizes that 6/28 is her sister's birthday
and FBI is the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Porsha is
likely to store the password in long-term memory
because she is using ______.
A. elaborative rehearsal
B. the primacy effect
C. the recency effect
D. maintenance rehearsal
Lana and Seth have a vocabulary test tomorrow. Lana
reads her list of words over and over. Seth uses the words
in the list to tell a story about his own life. According to
the _____ model of memory, the student who is more
likely to place more words in long-term storage is ______.
A. modal; Lana
B. modal; Seth
C. levels of processing; Lana
D. levels of processing; Seth
Georgia must memorize a speech to give in class. Georgia
knows that she should practice giving the speech in the
same room where she will ultimately deliver it because
this will help her remember the material. Georgia is
going to use ______ to help her remember the speech.
B. state-dependent memory
D. context-dependent memory
Use deep encoding strategies
Connect new information to your prior knowledgehelps
Be aware of possible interference between topics
Space out your learning
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Psychology 10-CH. 3
Psychology 10- Chapter 4
Psychology 10- Chapter 4 cont.
Psychology 10- Chapter 7
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