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Sociology 3420 Midterm - Online 16wk
Terms in this set (65)
Family (U.S. Census Bureau)
Two or more peope who are living together and who ate related by birth, marriage, or adoption.
The small unit consisting of a married couple with or without children or at least one parent and her/his children.
What is a family?
•No set definition.
•Meaning changes over space and time.
•Births, deaths, and divorces alter definition.
Definition of Family Excludes
•Children who move out of parents' homes.
•Children of divorced parents.
Grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.
How is "family" Socially Constructed?
A matter of collective definition and human agreement.
Who developed the Sociological Perspective?
C. Wright Mills
The ability to see the societal and historical patterns that influence individuals and groups of individuals.
The organized pattern of relationships and institutions that together form the basis of society.
Mills' Task of Sociology
To comprehend the whole of human society—its personal and public dimensions, historical, and contemporary—and its influence on the lives of human being.
Established and organized systems of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose.
How do families serve as social functions?
•Regulated sexual relationships
•People are cared for, protected, born, and socialized.
How is family a cultural symbol?
•Powerful symbol of decency
•The label "family" identifies wholesomeness/innocence
Why are definitions of family important?
Determines eligibility for social programs and economic benefits.
A set of statements used to explain or predict a particular aspect of social life.
•Theories focusing on society as a whole.
•Attempts to explain origin of family or family as social institutions.
•Centers on face-to-face interactions.
•Focused on specific family issues (dating, conflict, communication)
Portrays society as a huge organism with various social institutions working together to keep it alive, maintain order, and allow individuals to live together in relative harmony.
Concensus and order; when one part of society is not working, it affects all other parts and creates social problems.
The process by which individuals learn the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are appropriate within a given society.
How do families fill society needs?
•Regulated Sexual Activity/Procreation
•Physical care for family members
•Psychological Support and Emotional Security
Family is conceptualized as a mutually beneficial exchange where different members are responsible for carrying our specialized tasks.
Focuses on how social structure promotes divisions and inequalities between groups.
Gender is the central concept for explaining family structure and family dynamics.
Explains womens subordination and mens dominance within family and society.
Considers immediate social interaction to be the place where "society" exists
A relatively fixed, hierarchal arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social wealth.
Groups of people who share a similar wealth and income
The movement of people who share a similar position in society based on their wealth and income.
Reputations, connections, skills, and knowledge that can be exchanged for economic benefit.
•Protected position in society with particular lifestyles/perspectives
•Advantages have positive effect on children's standard of living.
•White/Blue Collar Jobs
•Occupations require degrees
Working Class Families
•Dependence on hourly wages
•Less health/retirement benefits
•Susceptible to economic downturns
•Teach children conformity/obedience
•"Heat or Eat" Dillema
•Food, shelter, and clothing are daily struggles
•Less likely to receive health care
Identified the minimum amount of money a family needs to make in order to survive.
The American Dream
The belief that opportunities for social mobility exist if you simply "choose" to explore them.
A category of individuals who share common inborn biological traits, such as skin color and texture of hair, and the shape of eyes or nose.
Nonbiological traits that are linked to ancestry, culture, history, language, behavior, and beliefs.
A category of people who have less power than the dominant group and who are subject to unequal treatment
Native American Families
•Racially inspired massacres.
•Confinement on reservations.
•Takeover of ancestral land.
African American Families
•Direct/indirect effects of centuries of forced servitude.
•Low marriage rate, early sexual activity/childbearing
•Low eduction, high unemployment, less finances
Asian American Families
•Hard work, achievement, self-control, dependability, good manners.
•Prejudice, discrimination, violence, and segregation after Pearl Harbor
- Seen as the "exception"
Latino American Families
•Cultural/familial diversity and diff immigration histories
•Influx of immigrants w/large families and Catholic beliefs against birth control
•More likely to have at least one person working in paid labor force.
Large kinship networks in which relatives may not live in the same household but live in the same neighborhood and interact on regular basis.
Different ethnicities and nationalities blending together to form a new cultural pattern.
Process by which members of ethnic or racial minority groups change their ways to conform to dominant culture.
Groups maintain their individual ethnic identities and their own languages, arts, music, foods, literature, and family forms.
A persons biological makeup; status at birth.
The social and cultural expectations of being man/woman.
Process where we are taught the norms associated with being male/female in our culture.
Agents of Socialization
Parents, family relations, schools, media, peers, and toys.
Behaving in ways that are considered appropriate for our gender.
An individual's ability to impose his/her will on others.
The Theoretical Importance of the Family (15-27)
-Family should be examined with reference to their social meaning
-Sociological approach focuses on the family as a social institution
-The familistic mode of living offers advantages like short line of communication, learning idiosyncratic needs, insiders are good (if not better) at household tasks
-Families are supported by outsiders (norms, values, laws and social pressures from society)
-Families have 1) two adult persons residing together, 2) engage in division of labor, 3) share economic and social exchanges, 4) share goods and social activities, 5) parental relations with children, 6) sibling relations
-Families provide advantages: economic goods, nurturance, protection, affection
-When the family is radically changed, larger society changes
-Family tasks can all be separated, but they aren't because of advantages
The Global Revolution in Family and Personal Life (27-33)
-The traditional family was above all an economic unit
-The inequality of men and women was intrinsic to the traditional family
-Parents cared more about the economic benefits of having children
-Sexual double standard was created during the Victorian period and sexual promiscuity defines masculinity
-Romantic love as replaced marriage as an economic contract
-Marriage signifies a couple is in a stable relationship
-Having a child is more distinct
-Good relationships are based on equality, respect and communication
-Sexual equality is relevant to happiness and fulfillment
-Great temptation to generalize our own experiences
-Family arouses intense emotions
-Entwined with strong moral and religious beliefs
-Family is compared to how it used to be
-"The good old days" are idealized
-Family can be compared to a "great intellectual Rorschach blot"
Decline of the Family: Conservative, Liberal, and Feminist Views (60-80)
-Conservatives have held that these problems can be traced to a culture of toleration and an expanding welfare state that undercut self-reliance and community standards. They focus on the family as a caregiving institution and try to restore its strengths by changing the culture of marriage & parenthood.
-Liberals center on the disappearance of manual jobs that throws less educated men out of work and undercuts their status in the family as well as rising hours of work among the middle class that makes stable two-parent families more difficult to maintain. Liberals argue that structural changes are needed outside the family in the public world of employment and schools.
-The feminist vision combines both the reality of human interdependence in the family and individualism of the workplace. Feminists want to protect diverse family forms that allow realization of freedom and equality while at the same time nurturing the children of the next generation.
Families on the Fault Line (371-388)
-Structural changes in the economy significantly affect family life
-The shift from the manufacturing to the service sector has left a lot of people without jobs
-Contingent or "disposable" workers have no job security, less tied to society
-Denying the existence of a working class, rendering them "invisible"
-Referred to as "invisible Americans"
The Economy That Never Sleeps (389-395)
-While these schedules might have some benefits, such as increased sharing of housework between husband and wife, increases in father's engagement in childcare and interaction, and possible decrease in childcare costs, most married mothers say they do these schedules because the job demands it.
-These nonstandard schedules cause problems with caregiver schedules as well because only a few childcare centers are open evenings and nights. There is heavy Reliance on informal arrangements.
-requiring higher wages for late shifts to compensate workers for the social and health costs of their schedules, or reducing work hours on late shifts (without a reduction in pay) to minimize the stress on individuals and families. --Other suggestions include addressing the difficulties of finding child care for parents with nonstandard shifts, greater child care subsidies to single parents, and regulating night work.
The Missing Class (395-419)
-The missing class are families that are above the poverty line, but well below the middle class. So they earn about $20,000 to $40,000 a year for a family of four. The federal poverty line is $20,000. They have multiple jobs. Both as individuals and in their households. They often have to press their children into the labor market and pool that money so that their households can maintain themselves above the poverty line...They work every hour that exists. And sometimes that means they're not around very much for their children. Because they can't stay above the poverty line unless they put in many, many hours.
-Need help with debt, first-rate health care
Diversity within African American Families (421-445)
-African American families need to win support for policy initiatives in a political environment that de-emphasize the role of government in social policy and human welfare to help with marital decline
-She looks are the treatment of African American families in historical and social sciences literatures. Also, she examines contemporary patterns of marriage, family, and household composition in response to recent social, economic, and political developments in the larger city. And lastly she explores some of the long-term implication of current trends in marriage and family behavior for com
Diversity within Latino Families: New Lessons for Family Social Science (445-471)
"The uniqueness of this migration is the product of the U.S. government sponsoring the Cuban Refugee Program. This program not only allowed Cubans to obtain a legal status with privileges that are not granted to other Latino immigrant groups but, in doing so, it has also positively contributed to Cubans' integration. Simultaneously, we should acknowledge the more positively selected immigrant population from South America."
-Collectivist family arrangements are the defining feature of the Latino population
-Cult of masculinity
-Analyzing how diverse families are formed based on inequalities
-Diversity plays a part in different economic orders and shifts
-Adaption offer new departures for the study of postmodern families
Conflict, Coping, and Reconciliation: Intergenerational Relations in Chinese Immigrant Families (472-485)
-Education is extremely important
-Tremendous pressures are placed on children
-Intense parent-child and community pressure pushes children to work hard
-Chinese Americans don't have sufficient cultural capital
Destined for Equality (87-95)
-Jackson asserts that women's rising status has been due largely to the emergence of modern political and economic organizations, which have transformed institutional priorities concerning gender. Although individual politicians and businessmen generally believed women should remain in their traditional roles, Jackson shows that it was simply not in the interests of modern enterprise and government to foster inequality. The search for profits, votes, organizational rationality, and stability all favored a gender-neutral approach that improved women's status. The inherent gender impartiality of organizational interests won out over the prejudiced preferences of the men who ran them.
-As economic power migrated into large-scale organizations inherently indifferent to gender distinctions, the patriarchal model lost its social and cultural sway, and women's continual efforts to rise in the world became steadily more successful. Total gender equality will eventually prevail; the only questions remaining are what it will look like, and how and when it will arrive.
The Ice Cracks (95-102)
-The civil rights movement made women conscious of the ways they were treated like second-class citizens and made them determined to change things
-Traditional marriage was seen as less attractive, and an unreliable "basket to put all your eggs" with increasing rates of divorce
-The economy created more jobs and women working was no longer seen as optional
Falling Back on Plan B: The Children of the Gender Revolution Face Uncharted Territory (102-116)
-Both men and women want a more egalitarian relationship, but are unsure if that is possible with pressures from society
-Women would rather be single and independent than enter into a traditional or neo-traditional relationship
-Women feel the need to be independent before entering a marriage
-Men prefer egalitarian relationships, but would settle for a neotraditional relationship where his career was more important as a plan B
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