75 terms

Ch 7 & 8 Health Complete

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Autonomic nervous system
the system controlling involuntary actions such as the heartbeat.
Axon
a nerve fibre that sends nerve impulses away from the cell body.
Brain stem
part of the brain where the spinal cord enters the skull. It controls the body's vital functions, such as breathing, blood pressure and heart rate.
Cell body
the part of the neurone that contains the nucleus.
Central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and the spinal cord.
Cerebellum
part of the brain that controls conscious thoughts, controls the movement of every body part, and receives sensory messages from each body part.
Dendrites
branches from the cell body that receive messages from other neurones.
Effectors
muscles or glands that put the messages into effect.
Medulla
the lower half of the brain stem.
Motor neurones
nerve cells that carry messages from the CNS to effectors.
Myelin sheath
the insulating layer that covers a neurone.
Nerve impulse
the electrical message carried by a nerve cell.
Neurone
a nerve cell.
Neurotransmitter
a chemical message released at the end of an axon to be received by the next neurone's dendrites.
Optic nerve
the nerve that carries messages to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye.
Parasympathetic nervous system
part of the nervous system that slows the body down and controls it when it is resting.
Peripheral nervous system (PNB)
the nerves that carry messages to and from the central nervous system and other parts of the body.
Receptors
special cells that detect stimuli.
Reflex actions
quick, automatic actions that protect the body from danger they are also known as reflexes.
Sensory neurones
nerve cells that carry messages from cells in the sense organs to the CNS.
Somatic nervous system
part of the nervous system that coordinates the movement of the body and received information from the sensory organs.
Stimulus
any factor that stimulates a receptor and brings about a response.
Sympathetic nervous system
part of the nervous system that speeds up the function of the body and makes the body work more efficiently.
Synapse
the space between two neurones.
Adrenal glands
endocrine glands situated on the kidneys.
Adrenaline
the common name for the hormone epinephrine.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone that controls the amount of urine produced by the body.
Endocrine glands
glands that produce hormones.
Endocrine system
all the endocrine glands of the body.
Endothermic
able to maintain a constant body temperature.
Glycogen
the chemical store of glucose in the liver and muscles.
Glucagon
a hormone that has the opposite effect to Insulin, It releases glucose from stores in the liver and muscles.
Homeostasis
the process of maintaining a constant internal environment.
Hormones
chemical substances that act as messengers in the body.
Hypothalamus
a portion of the brain that constantly checks the internal environment of the body.
Insulin
hormone produced in the pancreas that causes the liver and muscles to extract glucose from the bloodstream and store it in the liver and muscles.
Metabolism
all the chemical reactions occurring in the cells.
Pituitary gland
the endocrine gland that controls the activities of other endocrine glands, it is often called the "master gland".
Target cells
the cells on which a hormone acts.
Catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of the reaction without being used up in the process.
Diffusion
the movement of particles of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Enzyme
an organic catalyst.
Mitochondria
organelle where cellular respiration occurs.
Reactant molecule
the molecule that is going to be changed by a chemical reaction.
Ribosome
the organelle where proteins are manufactured.
Antibiotic
a substance that kills bacteria or prevents the growth of bacteria.
Antibody
a chemical made by the immune system that makes it possible for the white blood cells to destroy pathogens.
Bacteria
microscopic, single-celled organisms.
Contagious
very easy to spread - used to describe a disease.
Disease
anything that causes our body to stop working properly.
Immune
able to make the antibodies to a pathogen before it can make you unwell.
Infectious disease
a disease that can be spread.
Gastroenteritis
a stomach infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enteritidis.
Lymphocyte
a white blood cell that makes antibodies and is found in the lymph nodes.
Macrophage
a white blood cell that consumes pathogens and is found in the lymph nodes.
Neutrophil
a type of white blood cell that consumes pathogens.
Pathogen
an organism that causes disease.
Pathogenic bacteria
bacteria that cause disease.
Penicillin
an early antibiotic.
Quarantine
isolation to prevent the spread of a disease.
Tetanus
a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani.
Vaccine
a chemical that causes your body to react as if it had encountered a pathogen.
Amoebic dysentery
an infectious disease spread through contaminated water.
Chickenpox
a viral disease, symptoms include a rash of small, itchy blisters.
Fungicide
a chemical that kills fungi.
Host
the organism a parasite lives in.
Host cell
a cell that viruses have invaded.
Influenza
a viral illness, symptoms include high temperatures and body aches.
Malaria
an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium, mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite.
Measles
a viral disease that causes a rash.
Parasite
an organism that lives on or in the body of another organism (the host) and takes nutrients from it, the host gets nothing in return and may be harmed.
Spore
a single cell with a tough skin that fungi use to spread.
Thrush
a common fungal infection inside the mouth or the vagina, or causing nappy rash in babies.
Tinea
a fungal infection in the skin, hair or nails, often call ringworm.
Virus
a pathogen about one hundred times smaller than a bacterium.