How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

310 terms

PMBOK Glossary

PMBOK, 4th Edition
STUDY
PLAY
acceptance criteria
those criteria, including performance requirements and essential conditions which must be met before project deliverables are accepted
acquire project team
PROCESS. the process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining team necessary to complete project assignments
activity
a component of work performed during the course of a project
activity attributes
OUTPUT/INPUT. multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints and assumptions
activity code
one or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports
activity duration
the time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity
activity identifier
a short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity from other project activities. typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram
activity list
OUTPUT/INPUT. a documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed
actual cost (AC)
total costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. actual cost can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs. also referred to as actual cost of work performed (ACWP)
actual cost of work performed
ACWP
actual duration
the time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete
administer procurements
PROCESS. the process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed
analogous estimating
TECHNIQUE. an estimating technique that uses the values of parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity from a previous similar activity as the basis of estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity
application area
a category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product or the type of customer or industry sector
approved change request
OUTPUT/INPUT. a change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved
assumptions
assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration
assumptions analysis
TECHNIQUE. a technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions
authority
the right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions or give approvals
backward pass
the calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for uncompleted portions of all schedule activities. determined by working backward through the schedule network logic from the projects end date
baseline
an approved plan for a project, plus or minus approved changes. it is compared to actual performance to determine if performance is within acceptable variance thresholds. generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline
bottom-up estimating
TECHNIQUE. a method of estimating a component of work. the work is decomposed into more detail. an estimate is prepared of what is needed to meet the requirements of each of the lower, more detailed pieces of work, and these estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for the component of work
brainstorming
TECHNIQUE. a general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject matter experts
budget
the approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity
budget at completion (BAC)
the sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed on a project or a work breakdown structure component or a schedule activity. the total planned value for the project
BCWP
budgeted cost of work performed
BCWS
budgeted cost of work scheduled
buffer
reserve
buyer
the acquirer of products, services or results for an organization
calendar unit
the smallest unit of time used in scheduling a project. calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in quarters years, months, shifts, or even minutes
change control
identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting and controlling changes to the project baselines
change control board (CCB)
a formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying or rejecting changes to a project, with all the decisions and recommendations being recorded
change control system
TOOL. a collection of formal documented procedures that define how project deliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed and approved. in most application areas, the change control system is a subset of the configuration management system
change requests
requests to expand or reduce the project scope, modify policies, processes, plans or procedures, modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules
claim
a request, demand or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer or vice versa for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract (such as for a disputed change)
close procurements
PROCESS. the process of completing each project procurement
close project or phase
PROCESS. the process of finalizing all activities across all of the project management process groups to formally complete the project or phase
closing processes
PROCESS GROUP. those processes performed to finalize all activities across all project management process groups to formally close the project or phase
code of accounts
TOOL. any numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure
collect requirements
PROCESS. the process of defining and documenting stakeholder needs to meet project objectives
co-location
TECHNIQUE. an organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships and productivity
common cause
a source of variation that is inherent in the system and predictable. on a control chart, it appears as part of the random process variation and is indicated by random pattern of points within the control limits. also referred to as random cause
communications management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. the document that describes the communications needs and expectations for the project; how and in what format information will be communicated; when and where each communication will be made; wan who is responsible for providing each type of communication. is a subsidiary of the project management plan
conduct procurements
PROCESS. the process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller and awarding a contract
configuration management system
TOOL. a subsystem of the overall project management system. it is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results or components to verify conformance to requirements.
constraint
INPUT. the statue, quality or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. an applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to a project, which will affect the performance of the project or a process.
contingency reserve
OUTPUT/INPUT. the amount of funds, budget, or time needed above the estimate to reduce the risk of overruns of project objectives to a level acceptance to the organization

Is this accurate? other places specifies reserve used when a known risk is triggered... I.e to cover the contingency plan. Not used in risk avoidance, mitigation, transferring. These risk response costs are built into base estimate.
contract
OUTPUT/INPUT. a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it
data date
the date up to or through which the project's reporting system has provided actual status and accomplishments. also called as-of date and time-now date.
decision tree analysis
TECHNIQUE. a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. it is used when some future scenarios or outcomes of actions are uncertain. it incorporates probabilities and costs or rewards of each logical path or events and future decisions and uses expected monetary value analysis to help the organization identify the relative values of alternate actions.
decomposition
TECHNIQUE. a planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring and controlling the work
defect
an imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced
defect repair
the formally documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component
define activities
PROCESS. identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
define scope
PROCESS. developing a detailed description of the project and product
deliverable
OUTPUT/INPUT. any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase or project.
external deliverable
deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer
Delphi technique
TECHNIQUE. an information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. experts on the subject participate in the technique anonymously. a facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. the responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. consensus maybe reached in an few rounds of this process. Helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having influence on the outcome
determine budget
PROCESS. aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline
develop human resource plan
PROCESS. identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationships and creating a staffing management plan.
develop project charter
PROCESS. developing a document that formally authorizes a project or phase and documenting initial requirement that satisfy the stakeholders needs and expectations
develop project management plan
PROCESS. documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans
develop project team
PROCESS. improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance
develop schedule
PROCESS. analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule
direct and manage project execution
PROCESS. performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project's objectives
distribute information
PROCESS. making relevant information available to project stakeholders
duration (DU or DUR)
total number of work periods required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component.
early finish date (EF)
the earliest point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can finish, based on the schedule network logic, the data date and any schedule constraints.
early start date (ES)
the earliest point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start, based on the schedule network logic, the data date and any schedule constraints.
earned value (EV)
the value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. ALSO BCWP.
earned value management (EVM)
management methodology for integrating scope, schedule and resources and for objectively measuring project performance and progress. performance is measured by determining the budgeted cost of work performed (earned value) and comparing it to the actual cost of work performed (actual cost)
earned value technique (EVT)
TECHNIQUE. a specific technique for measuring the performance of work and used to establish the performance measurement baseline
effort
number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component
enterprise environmental factors
INPUT/OUTPUT. any of all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the projects success. these factors are from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project and include organizational culture and structure, infrastructure, existing resources, commercial databases, market conditions and project management software
estimate
OUTPUT/INPUT. a quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. usually applied to project costs, resources, effort and durations.
estimate activity durations
PROCESS. approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
estimate activity resources
PROCESS. estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment or supplies required to perform the activity
estimate at completion (EAC)
OUTPUT/INPUT. the expected total cost of a schedule activity, a work breakdown structure component or the project when the defined scope of work will be completed. Calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the project team based on other factors
estimate costs
PROCESS. developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities
estimate to complete (ETC)
OUTPUT/INPUT. expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, work breakdown structure component or project.
execute
directing, managing, performing and accomplishing the project work, providing the deliverables and providing work performance information
executing processes
PROCESS GROUP. those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy project objectives
expected monetary value (EMV)
analysis. a statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. used in decision tree analysis.
expert judgment
TECHNIQUE. judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed.
failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
TECHNIQUE. analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a product for all was that a failure may occur. for each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total system and item impact.
fast tracking
TECHNIQUE. project schedule compression that changes network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in sequence
finish date
a point in time associated with schedule activity's completion.
finish to finish (FF)
logical relationship where completion of work of the successor activity cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor activity.
finish to start (FS)
logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends on the completion of work of the predecessor activity
firm fixed price contract (FFP)
fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount regardless of the sellers costs
fixed price incentive fee contract (FPIF)
buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract) and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria
float
slack. total amount of time that a schedule activity maybe delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.
flowcharting
TECHNIQUE. depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system
forecast
estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the projects future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. information is based on the project's past performance and expected future performance
forward pass
calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities
free float
amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following schedule activities.
functional manager
someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a functional organization.
functional organization
hierarchal organization where each employee has one clear superior and staff are grouped by areas of specialization and managed by a person with expertise in that area.
Gantt chart
TOOL. graphic display of schedule related information.
grade
category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use but do not share the same requirements for quality
hammock activity
group of related schedule activities aggregated at some summary level and displayed as a single activity at that summary level. same as summary activity.
historical information
documents and data on prior project including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects
human resource plan
document describing how roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships and staffing management will be addressed and structured for the project
identify risks
PROCESS. determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics
identify stakeholders
PROCESS. identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project and documenting relevant information regarding their interest, involvement and impact on project success
imposed date
fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone. usually - start no earlier than, finish no later than
influence diagram
TOOL. graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events and other relationships among variables and outcomes
initiating processes
PROCESS GROUP. performed to defined a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase
input
PROCESS input. any item, internal or external, that is required by a process before that process proceeds
inspection
TECHNIQUE. examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result of service conforms to specified requirements.
invitation for bid (IFB)
request for proposal, but may have a narrower or more specific meaning
issue
point or matter in question or dispute. a point that is not settled or is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements
lag
TECHNIQUE. modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity. activity with a 10 day lag, cannot start until 10 days after an activity is finished
late finish date (LF)
the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity maybe completed based upon schedule network logic, the completion date and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. determined during the backward pass
late start date (LS)
the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may begin based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date and any constraints assigned to schedule activities without violating schedule constraint or delaying project completion date.
lead
TECHNIQUE. modification that allows an acceleration of the successor activity.
lessons learned
OUTPUT/INPUT. learning gained from the process of performing the project
lessons learned knowledge base
store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance
log
document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity
logical relationship
dependency between two project schedule activities or between project schedule activity and schedule milestone.
manage project team
PROCESS. tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and managing changes to optimize project performance
manage stakeholder expectations
PROCESS. communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and address issues as they occur
master schedule
TOOL. summary level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones
material
the aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, material.
matrix organization
structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and directing the work of persons assigned to the project
methodology
system of practices, techniques, procedures and rules used by those who work in a discipline
milestone
significant point or event in the project
milestone schedule
TOOL. summary level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestone
monitor
collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures and report and disseminate performance information
monitor and control project work
PROCESS. tracking, reviewing, regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan
monitor and control risks
PROCESS. implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks and evaluating risk process throughout the project
monitor and controlling processes
PROCESS GROUP. processes required to track, review and regulate the progress and performance of the project, identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required and initiate the corresponding changes.
Monte Carlo analysis
technique that computes or iterates the project cost or project schedule many times using input values selected at random from probability distributions of possible costs or durations, to calculate a distribution of total project costs or completion dates
Monte Carlo simulation
process which generates hundreds or thousands of probable performance outcomes based on probability distributions for cost and schedule on individual tasks. the outcomes are used to generate a probability distribution for a project as a whole.
near critical activity
schedule activity that has a low total float.
network logic
collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram
network path
any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram
node
one of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines
objective
something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to produced or a service to be performed
opportunity
a condition or situation favorable to the project, a positive set of circumstances, a positive set of events, a risk that will have a positive impact.
organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
TOOL. hierarchically organized depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate the work packages to the performing organizational units
organizational process assets
OUTPUT/INPUT. any of all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that are or can be used to influence the project's success. these process assets include formal or informal plans, policies, procedures and guidelines. include organizations knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information
output
PROCESS OUTPUT. a product, result or service generated by a process
parametric estimating
TECHNIQUE. an estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (sq. foot in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters such as scope, cost, budget, and duration
pareto chart
TOOL. a histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause
path convergence
the merging or joining of parallel schedule network paths into the same node in a project schedule network diagram. characterized by a schedule activity with more than one predecessor activity
path divergence
extending or generating parallel schedule network paths from the same node in a project schedule network diagram. characterized by schedule activity with more than one successor activity
percent complete
estimate of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component
perform integrated change control
PROCESS. reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and project management plan
performance measurement baseline
approved integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance
performance reports
OUTPUT/INPUT. documents and presentations that provide organized and summarized work performance information, earned value management parameters and calculations, and analyses of project work progress and status
performing organization
the enterprise whose personnel are directly involved in doing the work of the project
perform qualitative analysis
PROCESS. the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact
perform quality assurance
PROCESS. auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used
perform quality control
PROCESS. monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes
perform quantitative analysis
PROCESS. process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives
plan communications
PROCESS. determining project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach
plan procurements
PROCESS. documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying the approach and identifying potential sellers
plan quality
PROCESS. identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance
plan risk management
PROCESS. defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project
plan risk response
PROCESS. developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives
planned value (PV)
authorized budget assigned to the scheduled work to be accomplished for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component
planning package
work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities.
portfolio
collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives
portfolio management
TECHNIQUE. centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing and controlling projects, programs and related work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives
practice
specific type of management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools
precedence diagramming method (PDM)
TECHNIQUE. schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by boxes or nodes. schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are performed
precedence relationship
term used in precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship in current usage. precedence relationship, logical relationship and dependency are interchangeably used
predecessor activity
schedule activity that determines when the logical successor activity can begin or end
preventative action
documented direction to perform an activity that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks
probability and impact matrix
TOOL. common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate, or high by combining the two dimensions of a risk: its probability of occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs
procurement documents
OUTPUT/INPUT. documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer's invitation for bid, invitation for negotiations, request for information, request for quotation, request for proposal and sellers responses
procurement management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. document that describes how procurement processes from developing procurement documentation through contract closure will be managed
product
an artifact that is produced, is quantifiable and can be either an end item in itself or a component item
product life cycle
collection of generally sequential, non overlapping product phases whose name and number are determined by the manufacturing and control needs of the organization.
produce scope
features and functions that characterize a product, service or result
program
a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
technique for estimating that applies a weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates
program management
centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the program's strategic objectives and benefits
progressive elaboration
TECHNIQUE. continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process
project
temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result
project calendar
calendar of working days or shifts that establishes those dates on which schedule activities are worked and nonworking days that determine those dates on which schedule activities are idle
project charter
OUTPUT/INPUT. document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organization resources to the project activities
project communications management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information
project cost management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes involved in estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget
project human resource management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes that organize and manage the project team
project initiation
launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project
project initiation management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the project management process groups
project life cycle
collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization involved in the project
project management
application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements
project management body of knowledge
inclusive term, describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging.
project management information system (PMIS)
TOOL. information system consisting of tools and techniques to gather, integrate and disseminate the outputs of project management processes.
project management knowledge area
area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools and techniques
project management office (PMO)
organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain.
project management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. a formal approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored, and controlled.
project management process group
logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques and outputs. includes initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes and closing processes. NOT project phases
project management system
TOOL. aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources and procedures to manage a project
project management team
members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities
project manager
the person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives
project organization chart
OUTPUT/INPUT. document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project
project phase
collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable. project phase is a component of the project life cycle
project procurement management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes to purchase or acquire the products, services or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work
project quality management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken
project risk management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes concerned with conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, responses and monitoring and control on a project
project schedule
OUTPUT/INPUT. planned dates for performing schedule activities and planned dates for meeting schedule milestones
project schedule network diagram
OUTPUT/INPUT. schematic display of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities. drawn from left to right.
project scope
work that must be performed to deliver a product, service or result with the specified features and functions
project scope management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required and only the work required to complete the project successfully
project scope statement
OUTPUT/INPUT. narrative description of the project scope, including major deliverables, project assumptions, project constraints and a description of work that provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing a common understanding of project scope among stakeholders.
project team directory
list of project team members, their project roles and communication information
project time management
KNOWLEDGE AREA. processes required to manage the timely completion of a project
projectized organization
structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities, apply resources and direct the work of persons assigned to the project
quality
the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements
quality management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. describes how the project management team will implement the performing organizations quality plan.
regulation
requirements imposed by a government body. government mandated compliance
report performance
PROCESS. collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements and forecasts
request for information (RFI)
type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability
request for proposal (RFP)
type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services.
request for quotation (RFQ)
type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services
requested change
OUTPUT/INPUT. formally documented change request that is submitted for approval to the integrated change control process
requirement
condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service result or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification or other formally imposed document.
requirements traceability matrix
a table that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life cycle
reserve
provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and or schedule risk. modifier: management reserve (unknown risks), contingency reserve (known, but unplanned risks)
reserve analysis
TECHNIQUE. analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost or funds for a project
residual risk
risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented
resource
skilled human resources, equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets or funds
resource breakdown structure
hierarchal structure of resources by resource category and resource type used in resource leveling schedules and to develop resource limited schedules and which may be used to identify and analyze project human resource management
resource calendar
calendar of working days and non-working days that determines those dates on which each specific recourse is idle or can be active
resource histogram
bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods.
resource leveling
TECHNIQUE. any form of schedule network analysis in which scheduling decisions are driven by resource constraints
responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
TOOL. structure that relates the project organizational breakdown structure to the work breakdown structure to help ensure that each component of the project scope of work is assigned to a person or team
result
output from performing project management processes and activities. results include outcomes and documents.
rework
action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into compliance with requirements or specifications
risk
uncertain event or condition that has a positive or negative effect on projects objectives
risk acceptance
TECHNIQUE. risk response planning technique that indicates the project team has decided not to change the project management plan to deal with a risk, or is unable to identify any other suitable response strategy
risk avoidance
TECHNIQUE. risk response planning technique for a threat that creates changes to the project management plan that are meant to either eliminate the risk or to protect the project objectives from its impact.
risk breakdown structure (RBS)
hierarchically organized depiction of the identified project risks arranged by risk category and subcategory that identifies the various areas and causes of potential risks.
risk category
group of potential causes of risk. such as technical, external, organizational, environmental, project management. a category may include subcategories
risk management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. document describing how project risk management will be structured and performed on the project. contains the list of project risks, the results of risk analysis and risk responses
risk mitigation
TECHNIQUE. risk response planning technique associated with threats that seeks to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a risk to below an acceptable threshold
risk register
OUTPUT/INPUT. document containing the results of the qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis and risk response planning. details all identified risks including description, category, cause, probability of occurring, impact on objectives, proposed responses, owners, current status
risk tolerance
degree, amount or volume of risk that an organization or individual will withstand
role
defined function to be performed by a project team member
rolling wave planning
TECHNIQUE. form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of the work breakdown structure, while the work far in the future is planned at a relatively high level of the work breakdown structure, but the detailed planning of the work to be performed within another one or two periods in the near future is done as work is being completed during the current period.
root cause analysis
TECHNIQUE. analytical technique used to determine basic underlying reason that causes a variance or defect or risk
schedule baseline
specific version of the schedule model used to compare actual results to the plan to determine if preventive or corrective action is needed to meet the project objectives
schedule compression
shortening the project schedule duration without reducing the project scope
schedule management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. document that establishes criteria and activities for developing and controlling the project schedule
schedule model
TOOL. model used in conjunction with manual methods or project management software to perform schedule network analysis to generate the project schedule for use in managing the executing or a project
schedule network analysis
TECHNIQUE. identifying early and late start dates as well as early and late finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities
schedule performance index (SPI)
measure of schedule efficiency on a project. ratio of earned value (EV) and the planned value (PV). SV = EV minus PV.
scheduled finish date (SF)
point in time that work was scheduled to finish on a schedule activity. called planned finish date
scheduled start date (SS)
point in time that work was scheduled to start on a schedule activity. called planned start date.
scope
sum of products, services and results to be provided as a project
scope baseline
approved specific version of the detailed scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS) and its associated WBS dictionary
scope change
change to project scope. almost always requires an adjustment to the project cost or schedule
scope creep
adding features and functionality (project scope) without addressing the effects on time, costs, and resources or without customer approval
scope management plan
OUTPUT/INPUT. document that describes how the project scope will be defined, developed and verified and how the work breakdown structure will be created and defined and that provides guidance on how the project scope will be managed and controlled by the project management team.
s-curve
graphic display of cumulative costs, labor, hours, percentage of work or other quantities, plotted against time. used to depict planned value, earned value and active costs.
secondary risk
risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response
seller
provider of products, services or results
sensitivity analysis
quantitative risk analysis and modeling technique used to determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. typical display of results is in the form of a tornado diagram
sequence activities
PROCESS. identifying and documenting relationships among project activities
simulation
project model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into the potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project. Monte Carlo Analysis
slack
float (total float, free float)
special cause
source of variation that is not inherent in the system, is not predictable, and it intermittent. also referred to as assignable cause.
specification
document that specifies in a complete precise verifiable manner the requirements, design behavior or other characteristics of a system component, product, result or service
specification limits
the area on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart that meets the customer's requirements for a product or service.
sponsor
person or group that provides financial resources in cash or in kind for the project
staffing management plan
describes when and how human resource requirements will be met
stakeholder
person or organization that is actively involved in the project or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project
standard
document that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results
start date
point in time associated with a schedule activities' start.
start to finish (SF)
logical relationship where completion of the successor schedule activity is dependent upon the initiation of the predecessor schedule activity
start to start (SS)
logical relationship where initiation of the work of the successor schedule activity depends upon the initiation of the work of the predecessor schedule activity
statement of work (SOW)
narrative description of products, services or results
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats analysis (SWOT)
information gathering technique examines the project from the perspective of each projects strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to increase the breadth of the risks considered by risk management
sub network
subdivision (fragment) of a project schedule network diagram, usually representing a subproject or work package.
sub phase
subdivision of a phase
subproject
smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is subdivided by their logical relationship
successor activity
schedule activity that follows a predecessor activity as determined by their logical relationship
summary activity
group of related schedule activities aggregated at some summary level and displayed as a single activity (at the summary level)
technical performance measurement
TECHNIQUE. compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the project management plan's schedule of planned technical achievements.
technique
defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service that may employ one or more tools
template
partially complete document in a predefined format that provides a defined structure for collecting, organizing and presenting information and data
threat
condition or situation unfavorable to the project, a negative set of circumstances, a negative set of events, a risk that will have a negative impact on a project objective if it occurs, or a possibility for negative changes
three point estimate
TECHNIQUE. analytical technique that uses three cost or duration estimates to represent optimistic, most likely and pessimistic scenarios.
threshold
cost, time, quality, technical or resource value used as a parameter and which may be included in product specification. crossing the threshold should trigger some action.
time and material contract (T&M)
hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both cost reimbursable and fixed price contracts. time and material contract have no definitive end, can grow. units are preset by the buyer and seller.
time scaled schedule network diagram
TOOL. project schedule network diagram drawn in such a way that the position and length of the schedule activity represents its duration. bar chart that includes schedule network logic
to complete performance index (TCPI)
calculated projection of cost performance that must be achieved on the remaining work to meet a specified management goal. ratio of remaining work to funds remaining
tool
something tangible used in performing an activity to produce a product or result
total float
total amount of time that a schedule activity maybe delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.
trend analysis
TECHNIQUE. analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. it is a method of determining the variance from a baseline parameter by using prior progress reporting periods data and projecting how much that parameters variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project
triggers
indications that a risk has occurred or is about to occur. also called risk symptoms or warning signs. should be watched or monitored in the risk monitoring and control process.
validation
assurance that a product, service or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders
value engineering
approach to optimize project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and use resources more effectively
variance
quantifiable deviation, departure or divergence away from a known baseline or expected value
variance analysis
TECHNIQUE. method of resolving the total variance in the set of scope, cost, and schedule variables into specific component variances that are associated with defined factors affecting scope, cost and schedule variables
verification
evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification or imposed condition.
verify scope
PROCESS. formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables
virtual team
group of persons with a shared objective who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting fact to face.
voice of the customer
planning technique used to provide products, services and results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project product development
work authorization
permission and direction to begin work on a specific schedule activity or work package or control account. sanctions project work to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence
work authorization system
TOOL. subsystem of overall project management system. collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time and in the proper sequence.
work breakdown structure (WBS)
OUTPUT/INPUT. deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables
work breakdown structure component
an entry in the work breakdown structure that can be at any level
work breakdown structure dictionary
OUTPUT/INPUT. describes each component in the work breakdown structure (WBS). for each WBS component, the WBS dictionary includes a brief definition of the scope of statement of work, defined deliverables, a list of associated activities and list of milestones. May also include: responsible organization, start/end dates, resources required, estimate of cost, charge number, contract info, quality requirements, technical references.
work package
deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of the work breakdown structure
work performance information
OUTPUT/INPUT. information and data on the status of the project schedule activities being performed to accomplish the project work collected as part of the direct and manage project execute processes. Information includes: status of deliverables, implementation status for change requests, corrective actions, preventative actions, defect repairs, forecasted estimates to complete; reported % of work physically completed, start and finish dates of schedule activities
workaround
TECHNIQUE. response to a negative risk that has occurred, workaround is not planned in advance of the occurrence of the risk event