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41 terms

The Lower Respiratory System: The Larynx

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glottis
inhaled air passes through the ________ en route to the lungs
larynx
(composed of 9 cartilages) surrounds and protects the glottis
epiglottis
projects into the pharynx
vestibular folds
relatively inelastic fold that of the glottal opening
vocal fold
delicate fold of the glottal opening
sound
air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces ________
intrinsic laryngeal muscles
regulate tension in the vocal folds and open and close the glottis.
extrinsic laryngeal muscles
positions and stabilizes the larynx
swallowing
during _______, both sets of laryngeal muscles help to prevent particles from entering the glottis
trachea
(widpipe) extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra
submucosa
contains C-shaped tracheal cartilages
tracheal cartilages
stiffen the tracheal walls and protect the airway.
right and left primary bronchi
the trachea branches within the mediastinum to form _________ and ________ ________ ________
bronchial tree
the primary bronchi and their branches form ________
hilus
opening where the primary bronchi enter
root of the lung
connective tissue mass including the bronchus, pulmonary vessels, and nerves
primary, secondary (lobar), tertiary
three types of bronchi
secondary and tertiary
________ has less cartilage and more smooth muscle in comparison to the primary bronchi
lobes of the lungs
separated by obliques fissures
right lung
________ has three lobes and three secondary bronchi
superior, middle, inferior lobar bronchi
three secondary bronchi
left lung
________ has two lobes and two secondary bronchi
superior lobar and inferior lobar bronchi
two secondary bronchi
costal surface
______ of the lung follows the inner contours of the rib cage
mediastinal surface
contains a hilus
cardiac impression and notch
the left lung bears the _________
parenchyma
the connective tissues of the root extend into the _______ of the lung
trabeculae
the connective tissues of the root extend into the parenchyma of the lung as a series of _________
septa
series of trabeculae forms the ________
lobules
septa divide the lung into _______
left and right primary bronchi
extrapulmonary bronchi are outside the lung tissue
intrapulmonary lungs
(branches within the lung) surrounded by bands of smooth muscle
bronchopulmonary segments
each lung is further divided into smaller units
tertiary bronchi
bronchopulmonary segments are named according to the associated _______ ________
10 bronchopulmonary segments
the right lung contains ____ _________ __________
8-9 bronchopulmonary segments
the left lung contains ____ ________ _________
terminal bronchioles
within the bronchopulmonary segments each teriary bronchus ultimately gives rise to 50-80 _____ ______ that supply individual lobules
respiratory membrane
(aveolar lining) consists of a simple squamous epithelium of Type 1 cells
septal cells
Type II cells scattered in it produce an oily secretion (surfactant) that keeps the alveoli from collapsing.
surfactant
secretion from septal cells that keeps the alveoli from collapsing
alveolar macrophages
(dust cells) patrol the epithelium and engulf Ags