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201 terms

Honors US

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Liberals tend to prefer which of the following in foreign policy?
international cooperation
Some conservatives believe that a large central government
harms economic growth
Neoconservatives warn about the dangers posed to society by
abandoning traditional values
Ronald Reagan convinced many Americans that he would
usher in a new era of prosperity
The Reagan administration presided over the of the airline, telecommunications, and banking industries.
deregulation
Liberals argued that took money away from public schools.
vouchers
Reagan reduced taxes but increased defense spending, causing a
budget deficit
The theory of rested on the idea that lower taxes would encourage people to work more so that they would have more money to spend.
supply-side economics
The amount of money owed by the federal government, or the , skyrocketed during Reagan's presidency.
national debt
The resulted from fraudulent business activity and risky lending.
savings and loan crisis vouchers
The Reagan administration committed the United States to a
massive arms buildup
Reagan supported rebellions in Afghanistan, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and
Grenada to
weaken the Soviet Union
The START I treaty aimed to
reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the world
Which of the following symbolized the end of communism in Europe?
the fall of the Berlin Wall
Congress pressured South Africa to change its apartheid system by
imposing economic sanctions
Bush launched "Operation Restore Hope" to protect human rights in
Somalia
Which of the following best describes the 1991 Persian Gulf War?
short, with few American casualties
Nixon's name for Middle Americans
silent majority
Period of a stagnating economy and inflation
stagflation
Plan to help African Americans overcome past discrimination
affirmative action
Principle that the President has the right to keep certain information to himself
executive privilege
Group that placed an oil embargo on the United States
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
Nixon's establishment of "new federalism"
gave federal money to states to fund social programs.
In the case of United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court ruled that
Nixon had to turn over tapes containing Oval Office conversations.
During his presidency, Gerald Ford
faced high inflation, skyrocketing prices, and rising unemployment.
Jimmy Carter's response to the nation's oil crisis was to
ask people to conserve oil
Developed the WIN plan to combat inflation.
Gerald Ford
Served as governor of Georgia before being elected President.
Jimmy Carter
Soon after his inauguration, Carter granted to Americans who had evaded the
draft during the Vietnam War.
amnesty
Gerald Ford granted a -- to Richard Nixon.
pardon
President Ford's policy toward the Soviet Union focused on
continuing to pursue détente
What was the central concern of Carter's foreign policy?
expanding human rights in the developing world
Carter's greatest foreign policy achievement was
the Camp David Accords
Threats posed by Middle East conflicts became a major foreign policy challenge because of the
Iran hostage crisis
The Geneva Accords provided for
the division of Vietnam
What happened during the Vietnamese election in 1956?
Ngo Dinh Diem refused to participate
President Johnson escalated American involvement in Vietnam by
ordering airstrikes
Agent Orange is a jellied gasoline that American pilots dropped on Vietnam.
False
Hawks disagreed with President Johnson's war policy.
False
The commander in South Vietnam was Robert McNamara.
False
The mostly conservative doves supported President Johnson's war policy.
False
To eliminate deferment abuses, the Selective Service system
adopted a lottery
In March 1968, what surprising announcement did President Johnson make to the American people?
He would not run for another term as President
Who won the 1968 Presidential election?
Richard Nixon
President Nixon ordered the secret bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Cambodia to
reduce the flow of communist supplies
What did the Pentagon Papers reveal?
US leaders misled Congress and the American people about the war
Ultimately, the end of the Vietnam War resulted in
communist control of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
Segregation by custom or tradition
de facto segregation
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the time of Brown v. Board of Education
Earl Warren
Held to protest the arrest of Rosa Parks
Montgomery bus boycott
Gave the U.S. Attorney General greater power to protect the voting rights of African Americans
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Refused to relinquish a bus seat to a white passenger
Rosa Parks
Segregation imposed by law
de jure segregation
The -- was established by Ella Baker.
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
The was passed by Congress during the Johnson administration
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The was one type of protest used by civil rights activists
sit-in
Sought to enroll at "Ole Miss."
James Meredith
Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech during the ___.
March on Washington
____ was assassinated in 1963.
Medgar Evers
Not long after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, African Americans in several cities
rioted
What happened in many cities after M. L. King's assassination?
riots broke out
What is an argument that people used to prevent affirmative action?
it would violate the goal of creating a colorblind society
Kennedy's military policies encouraged more funding for
Special Forces
What was the outcome of the Alliance for Progress?
Relations between the US and Latin America improved
The Bay of Pigs invasion was an attempt to overthrow
Fidel Castro
Kennedy prevented completion of missile bases in Cuba by approving a
naval blockade
Encouraged fair employment practices
Equal Pay Act
Included the Project Mercury flights
space race
Investigated Kennedy's assassination
Warren Commission
Kennedy's domestic agenda
New Frontier
Technique to stimulate the economy
deficit spending
One component of President Kennedy's New Frontier was
equality for all Americans
How did President Kennedy initially approach civil rights policies?
cautiously
The Economic Opportunity Act provided some health benefits for Americans over 65 years of age.
false
President Johnson's vision for America was called the Great Society.
true
The Civil Rights Act created the Jobs Corps.
false
The Warren Court became the most conservative Supreme Court in American history.
false
Medicaid provided basic medical services to poor and disabled Americans.
true
What was one result of the Great Society?
The lives of many underprivileged Americans improved
Military alliance of the Soviet Union and its Satellite nations
Warsaw Pact
U.S. policy to limit communism
containment
U.S. policy giving massive loans and grants to Western Europe
Marshall Plan
U.S. policy to assist countries struggling against communist movements
Truman Doctrine
Military alliance of the United States and countries in Western Europe
NATO
Worldwide rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
Cold War
In China's civil war, the United States backed
the Nationalists, led by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek).
In 1950, what event began the conflict on the Korean peninsula?
The North Korean army invaded south of the 38th parallel
How did the American public view General MacArthur after President Truman fired him?
they saw him as a hero
The policy of massive retaliation promised a strong response to Soviet threats against allies, but without the use of nuclear weapons.
false
Brinkmanship described the tactic of promoting peace by always being well prepared for war.
false
Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal by taking it over and putting it under the direct control of the government.
true
After the Soviets first launched a satellite in 1957, the U.S. government set up NASA to coordinate American space-related efforts.
true
The Eisenhower Doctrine claimed that the United States and Soviet Union would continue developing more powerful weapons.
false
J. Robert Oppenheimer was investigated because
he had friends and family who belonged to the Communist Party.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were charged, convicted, and executed for
passing secrets about nuclear science to the Soviets.
What led to Senator McCarthy's downfall?
the broadcast of the McCarthy hearings on television
The Allies decided to pursue a "Europe First" strategy because they
believed that Germany posed a more serious threat than Japan did
Following the battle of Stalingrad
Hitler's plans of dominating Europe were ended.
Which of the following was a result of the Battle of Midway?
Japan never again threatened Pacific domination
Limiting the amount of certain goods that civilians can buy
rationing
This ensured fair hiring practices in jobs funded with government money
Executive Order 8802
The policy of temporary imprisoning members of a specific group
internment
African American labor leader who threatened a march on Washington
A. Philip Randolph
What was one effect of the D-Day invasion?
The Allies took an important step toward reaching Berlin.
One of the effects of the Battle of the Bulge was that
Germany used its reserves and demoralized its troops in the battle
Who made the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan?
Harry S. Truman
Which of the following limited the initial U.S. response to the Holocaust?
many people underestimated Hitler's plans
Which two nations emerged as the strongest following World War II?
Soviet Union and the US
The United Nations was organized to
encourage cooperation
In the years closely following World War II, many African Americans
renewed their efforts to work for civil rights.
Theory of government in which a single party or leader maintains strict control.
totalitarianism
Russian leader who was known as the Great Terror.
Joseph Stalin
Italian leader who founded the Fascist Party.
Benito Mussolini
German dictator who wanted to unify all Germanic people into one state.
Adolf Hitler
Prejudiced against Jewish people.
anti-Semitic
Policy of granting concessions.
appeasement
Included Britain, France, and eventually many other nations
Allies
Included a cash-and-carry provision that aided the Allies
Neutrality Act of 1939
Ensured that Germany, Italy, and Japan would fight on the same side
Tripartite Pact
Allowed President Roosevelt to provide any type of economic aid to the Allies
Lend-Lease Act
Endorsed national self-determination
Atlantic Charter
The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor because they wanted to
destroy ships and planes that threatened their expansion efforts
Which ships survived the attack on Pearl Harbor untouched?
aircraft carriers
After declaring war, the United States government
transformed peacetime industries into war industries.
After the United States declared war, the nation's economic situation
improved
Priest who criticized the New Deal
Charles Coughlin
Signed into law fifteen pieces of legislation in the first hundred days of office
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Introduced the "Share our Wealth" program
Huey Long
Program to insure bank deposits
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
Built a series of dams to generate electric power
TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority
What were the goals of the New Deal?
Provide relief, recovery, and reform
Some opponents of the New Deal believed that it
threatened individual freedom
In 1938, the ___ established a minimum wage and a maximum workweek of 44 hours.
Fair Labor Standards Act
President Roosevelt was accused of ___ when he attempted to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme Court.
court packing
___ was a British economist who believed that deficit spending was necessary to provide the necessary relief from the depression.
john maynard keynes
President Roosevelt introduced the ___ to help retirees.
Social Security Act
Eleanor Roosevelt showed her support of minorities when she
sat with black delegates at a conference
Who was the first female Cabinet member?
Frances Perkins
One way that Americans escaped their concerns during the 1930s was to
go to theaters to watch movies
United States President from 1929-1933
Herbert Hoover
A risky stock purchase intended to turn quick profits
stock speculation
The time at which the stock market collapsed in the Great Crash
Black Tuesday
Which of these factors helped hide economic problems in the 1920s?
Americans purchased many consumer goods on credit.
Why did so many banks fail at the onset of the Great Depression?
Too many depositors tried to withdraw their money all at once
Dust Bowl refugees from the Great Plains, called, ___ headed west to look for work.
Okies
During the Great Depression, many homeless people grouped together to build ___ , or makeshift shantytowns of tents and shacks.
Hoovervilles
___ lived on and worked land owned by someone else.
tenant farmers
Impoverished people in the cities often waited in to obtain free food from charities and public agencies.
bread lines
The caused hundreds of thousands of people to migrate from the Great Plains.
dust bowl
President Hoover responded cautiously to the depression because he
thought that the business cycle would correct itself.
President Hoover urged Congress to institute the RFC because he believed
that the economy suffered from
too much regulation.
Why did many Americans want new leadership in 1932?
President Hoover's economic policies had failed.
What was the condition of America's economy following World War I?
There was a brief recession, followed by economic growth.
What was a major result of Henry Ford's innovative manufacturing techniques?
The sale prices of cars went down
The demand for automobiles in the 1920s
stimulated growth in many other industries.
During the 1920s, American farmers as a group
suffered economically
Presidents Harding and Coolidge favored policies that
aided the growth of business
As President, Warren G. Harding
reduced the regulations on businesses put into place by the Progressives.
President Coolidge believed that the creation of wealth
benefited the nation as a whole.
The Scopes Trial amended the U.S. Constitution to forbid the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol.
false
Clarence Darrow was the most celebrated defense attorney in America.
true
Bootleggers sold illegal alcohol to consumers.
true
The "New Woman" of the 1920s
rejected Victorian morality.
The first movie to have sound synchronized with the action was
the Jazz Singer
The popular jazz trumpeter of the 1920s
Louis Armstrong
The most militant of the Harlem Renaissance writers
Claude McKay
Popular blues singer of the 1920s
Bessie Smith
Outpouring of African American culture
Harlem Renaissance
When World War I began, President Wilson wanted the United States to
remain neutral because of the nation's
ethnic diversity.
What was the immediate cause of the U.S. entry into World War I?
the Zimmerman Note
Which of these best describes the impact of World War I on the American
economy?
regulation increased
What was the effect of the Sedition Act?
It limited freedom of speech.
How did World War I change the lives of American women?
It broadened job opportunities for women.
How did World War I contribute to the Great Migration?
by creating jobs in the North
Where did American troops do the most fighting?
western front
What was the result of the U.S. Senate's refusal to approve the Treaty of
Versailles?
The League of Nations was ineffective.
A potentially deadly viral illness
influenza
An anarchist who was convicted of murder
Sacco
A country that owes less money than it is owed
creditor nation
Republican President
Warren G. Harding
An economy that is based on mining or producing raw materials to be used in foreign industries is called
extractive economy
The United States wanted overseas territories because the territories had
customers who buy US products
What new relationship with Hawaii did Congress approve in 1898?
annexation
The theory that life consists of competitive struggles in which only the
strong survive is called
social darwinism
The 1898 Treaty of Paris dealt with which territory or territories?
Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines
The Teller Amendment stated that the United States
could not annex Cuba
Which presidential candidate ran on an anti-imperialist platform?
William Jennings Bryan
The Great White Fleet was a group of battleships designed to demonstrate to the world U.S. naval power.
true
The determined the form of government in Puerto Rico.
Foraker Act
The asserted that the United States should act as Latin America's police power, intervening to restore order when necessary.
Roosevelt Corollary
Many Progressive reformers targeted city officials who built corrupt organizations called
political machines
Founded the National Women's Party, which used public protest marches to demand the right to vote
Alice Paul
This stated that the right to vote "shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex"
Nineteenth Amendment
W.E.B. Du Bois was an outspoken critic of
Booker T. Washington
Which event led to the formation of the NAACP?
1908 springfield riot
Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States when William McKinley was assassinated.
true
President Theodore Roosevelt promoted a program called the Square Deal to protect the interests of small business owners and the poor.
true
Which party did Woodrow Wilson represent in the 1912 presidential election?
Democratic party
Set out President Woodrow Wilson's plan for government in the United States
New Freedom
Gave Congress the power to create an income tax
16th Amendment
Placed national banks under the control of a central authority
Federal Reserve Act