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AP Bio Ch 11 Vocab
Terms in this set (20)
A series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
Signal Transduction Pathway
Secreted molecules that influence cells near where it is secreted.
First of three stages in cell signaling, when the target cell's detection of a signaling molecule coming from outside the cell.
Second of three stages in cell signaling, where the binding of the cell's detection of a signaling molecule that changes the receptor protein located at the cell's surface or inside the cell.
The third stage in cell signaling where the transducer signal finally triggers a specific cellular response.
Secreted chemicals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells in other parts of the body to change their functioning.
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one.
Signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein
G Protein-Coupled Receptor
A GTP binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal response.
Receptor protein in the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine on another protein.
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
A protein pore in cellular membranes that opens or closes in response to a signaling chemical, allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions.
Ligand-Gated Ion Channel
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.
An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase.
Small, non-protein, waters-soluble molecules or ions that relay signals to a cell's interior in response to a signaling molecule by a signal receptor protein.
A ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule in eukaryotic cells.
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a signal.
A second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain non steroid hormones and a third messenger.
A second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.
A type of large relay protein to which several others relay proteins are simultaneously attached, increasing the efficiency of signal transduction.
A program of controlled cell suicide, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.
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