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Honors British Literature Final 2013
Compilation of vocab, works and authors, literary terms, and miscellaneous information for the 2013 final exam.
Terms in this set (88)
A major division of a play; symbolized by uppercase Roman numerals.
Division of a play that is contained within an act; symbolized by lowercase Roman numerals.
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
Repetition of vowel sounds in words; not rhyme.
a speaker addresses an inanimate or nonliving object as if it could respond
this is spoken to a specific character onstage or to the audience; cannot be heard by other characters
a summary of one's life written by that person; more formal than a memoir
a story that compares two dissimilar things or ideas, much like an extended metaphor
two lines that rhyme
conversation between two or more characters
a type of literary work that is usually meant to be acted out onstage (another term for play)
literary work that celebrates and honors one who has died
a formal ceremony for one who has died
a musical recognition of one who has died
a writing on the gravestone of a deceased person
type of story (usually poetry) that showcases the adventures of certain heroic figures pertaining to a specific civilization or culture
a struggle between opposing forces occurring outside of the context of one's own self
a struggle between opposing forces occurring within one's inner self
a late eighteenth century political period in France that encompassed the overthrow of the incumbent monarchy and institution of new government under Napoleon; many thousands of people were executed during this series of events
the use of certain words, phrases, literary devices, or other forms of writing to create a work appealing to human senses and sentiments
this type of rhyme occurs in a single line of poetry
poetry that expressed the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker
a recap of a person's life that is not meant to be formal
poetry typical of lyric poets in the seventeenth century; characterized by conceits and metaphors to abstract concepts, such as love and nature
a comparison of dissimilar things that does not use "like" or "as"
a metaphor that is the underlying theme for an entire work of literature
used to describe the number of beats per line in a poem
words spoken by a character onstage that other characters can hear
poetry that tells a story
an extended work of fiction that has a complex plot, major and minor characters, and a unifying theme with several settings
a type of imagery that uses sounds to appeal to the sense of hearing
a contradiction similar to an oxymoron that could possibly hold a degree of truth
the act of giving human qualities to nonhuman beings
the act of using ideas taken from other works and claiming those ideas as your own without giving the authors credit
point of view
the perspective from which a story is told
work that is not poetry; typical everyday writing or essay form
the combination of letters used to describe how certain lines correlate in rhyme
a nineteenth century literary movement concerned with open expression of ideas and topics not perviously covered by poets
a comparison of two things using "like" or "as"
occurs when a speaker talks to himself or herself alone onstage
the character or person who communicates the action of a story to the audience
a set or collection of lines in verse
the use of definite objects or signs to represent abstract ideas
a story in which the hero or heroine undergoes a great downfall or other disaster, usually resulting in death of characters
a specific characteristic of a hero or heroine that leads to their downfall
writing that is not prose and is composed of lines, usually in a distinct rhythm
the tone that a speaker uses to convey his or her thoughts; active or passive
Known for writing the novel Pride and Prejudice, she was born to aristocratic parents and was highly educated as a youth.
At age twelve, she wrote parodies of popular Gothic and sentimental fiction of her day. Although her novels dealt with love and courtship, she never married in her lifetime. She died on July 18, 1817, due to Addison's disease.
This memoir was written by a poverty-stricken Irish boy named Frank McCourt in the late 1990s. It details McCourt's struggles, his desires, and his hopes to provide a better life for himself and his family.
He was born in New York to poor Irish parents Malachy and Angela McCourt; his family later moved to Ireland. After struggling with poverty in his mother's hometown of Limerick, he moves to America to provide a better life for himself. Eventually, he earned a bachelor's degree in English from New York University and became an English teacher at local schools. He is known for writing Angela's Ashes and 'Tis, two memoirs that recap his life. He died in 2009.
A work of fiction by John Milton that illustrates the effects of the downfall of Adam and Eve. In this story, Satan and his followers defy eternal punishment and bring negative effects, such as sin, upon humankind.
This famous playwright was born in April 1564 to educated parents. At an early age, he learned Latin and attended Stratford Grammar School, where he became familiar with Greek classics. He married Anne Hathaway in 1582 and is best known for his plays Macbeth, Hamlet, and Romeo and Juliet. He also partly owned the original Globe Theater, which was demolished; a new one was put in its place
In Memoriam, A.H.H
Written by Lord Alfred Tennyson, this work is an elegy to his closest friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. In it, Tennyson questions the philosophies of death, religion, faith, and immortality. It was written in 1849, 16 years after Hallam died.
Lord Alfred Tennyson
This poet, fourth of twelve children, had an unhappy childhood. Although his father was an affluent clergyman, the father disinherited him from the family fortune. He was named Poet Laureate of England in 1884.
Lord Alfred Tennyson
Some of this poet's best known works include elegy In Memoriam, A.H.H. and The Lady of Shalott. After his death in 1892, critics initially gave his works shallow reviews, but his work eventually became widely praised. He was the first English writer to earn a title for his literary accomplishments.
The Lady of Shalott
This poem was written by Lord Alfred Tennyson. In it, Tennyson explores Arthurian Legend by telling a story of a woman who is trapped in a castle and cannot look out the window (the Lady). When knights pass by her window, she finds that she cannot resist, so she sets out to Camelot, only to die because of a curse placed upon her. This is an example of pastoral poetry.
This Romantic poet wrote The Lamb, The Chimney Sweeper, The Tyger, and Infant Sorrow. He was known to use visions as his inspiration for the works he wrote, visions that his parents encouraged him to have. He attended school as an engraver's apprentice and later went to the Royal Academy. Though he did not earn much money during his lifetime, his works capture the realization that in order to achieve the wonderment of childhood, one must fuse innocence and experience.
Written by William Blake, this poem depicts one of his inner visions of a lamb. This poem exemplifies the lamb as a peaceful being created by God and as a metaphor for Christianity.
This work by William Blake depicts a dualism of beauty and primeval behavior in the form of a tiger. It is the sister poem to The Lamb, also written by Blake. In this poem, the speaker wonders whether or not the tiger is created by the same God who created the lamb.
The Chimney Sweeper
This poem is actually one of two poems of the same name written by William Blake. In this poem, Blake capitalizes on the innocence of a young chimney sweeper named Tom, who was sold by his father at a very young age. When an angel frees Tom and the other sweepers, they rise up to heaven to be with God. When Tom awakes from his dream, he sets out to do his work, knowing that he and the rest of the workers will be fine?
This poem by William Blake show us that childhood is not always happy. In the poem, an unwanted child is the speaker, who sulks and groans in the mother's arms.
Song of Innocence and Experience
This is a collection of poems written by William Blake. Blake contrasts the two differing sides of human nature: the point when the human spirit is allowed to blossom, and the point where human nature has to conform to rules and societal standards. This collection exemplifies Blake's larger philosophy of achieving true innocence and childlike happiness.
Born in 1608 to upper middle-class Londoners, this poet grew up in a highly cultured environment. He learned Greek, Latin, and Hebrew at a relatively young age, and he attended Cambridge to devote himself to a life of study. He was eventually made Secretary of State for Foreign Tongues by Oliver Cromwell, the new Prime Minister in the parliamentary government. He eventually went blind and, after the monarchy was restored, he was thrown in jail. He is best known for writing Paradise Lost, the greatest English epic poem.
Born in Ireland before his father died, this writer was educated through the help of his relatives. He eventually landed a position as an assistant to diplomat Sir William Temple, after which he wrote pamphlets for the Tory Party in England under the direction of Queen Anne. His best known works are satires, namely Gulliver's Travels and A Modest Proposal, denouncing pride, corruption, selfishness, and fanaticism.
Written by Jonathan Swift, this satire pokes fun at the heightening tensions developing between the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Church, as well as conflict between the Protestant England and Catholic France.
A Modest Proposal
Written by Jonathan Swift, this satire focuses on the upper class's relentless pursuit of luxury and, consequently, the lack of care towards the lower classes. He proposed that the wealthy classes turn their one-year-old babies into edible meat that could be distributed among the starving lower classes in Ireland.
Despite his parents' death when he was thirteen, this writer became well-known for helping to start the Romanticism movement. His works embody an intensified presentation of ordinary life using common language, rather than the effusive praise and flowery language of the previous era. He attended Cambridge and was active in promoting the ideals of the French Revolution, such as social justice and human rights, seen is his autobiography The Prelude and other works, such as The World is Too Much With Us, Tintern Abbey, and Lyrical Ballads.
Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey
Written by William Wordsworth, this poem depicts his life in Tintern Abbey in two separate occasions: first, when the coty was bustling, and second, when the city is in ruins. It reflects Wordsworth's deep love for nature and belief in pantheism.
The World is Too Much With Us
This is a sonnet written by William Wordsworth. In it, he criticizes the mentality of the First Industrial Revolution, claiming that people have become too materialistic and have lost touch with nature.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
He was born in Ottery St. Mary and was the youngest of ten children. As a child he was very studious, and he later attended Cambridge. He became friends with fellow poet Robert Southey and married Sara Fricker. When he moved to Somerset and met future friends William Wordsworth, the two started work on a new set of poems entitled Lyrical Ballads; he also worked on his own poem, Rime of the Ancient Mariner. As he grew older, he became sick with asthma and rheumatism, his marriage collapsed, and he died.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Coleridge wrote this poem (his longest) as part of his collection Lyrical Ballads. In it, he explores the adventures of a sea captain who becomes stricken with guilt after killing an albatross at sea. Later, the sea captain seeks forgiveness from a hermit and finds redemption. This story symbolizes our salvation from Christ and is an allegory to the Christian faith.
This poet was born into a poor but noble family; his father died when he was three years old, and when he was ten, he inherited the title "Baron" from his great uncle. He attended Trinity College at Cambridge and later became a well-known, charming, famous poet. He later dissolved his marriage to Annabella Milbanke and moved to Greece to free the people there from Turkish rule, where he died of rheumatic fever.
This poem was written by Lord Byron. It depicts the struggles of a young, charming man who reflects on the passing of time and the realization that he will not be young and innocent forever.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
This writer was the husband of Mary Shelley, known as the author of Frankenstein. Percy was born into the upper class and attended Oxford, where he would meet his friend Thomas Jefferson Hogg. He was expelled, along with Hogg, for publishing a paper about atheism, and he left for London, where he met his first wife, Harriet. When Harriet died, Percy married Mary Wollstonecraft, and the two moved to Italy because Percy was an outcast. Percy is most known for Ozymandias; he died in a boating accident at only age 29.
A poem published by Percy Bysshe Shelley. In it, Shelley explores the ultimate power that leaders have over their subjects; in this case, the pharaoh that this poem is named after has dominion and power over the territory he controls.
In contrast to other poets, such as Byron and Shelley, this poet was born into a working-class family. As a child, he had an affinity for fighting, but he started to develop an interest in poetry as well. Originally, he wanted to study medicine, but he decided to embark on a literary career instead. He married Fanny Brawne and shortly afterward composed many poems that are his most famous today, including When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be. Not too long after his burst of creativity, he died of tuberculosis.
When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be
Written by John Keats, this poem ponders the ultimate meaning of life and worldly emotions. In this work, Keats mentions that love and fame sink to nothingness, implying that life is short and worldly feelings don't matter in the grand scheme of things. Keats also reflects on the feeling of regret that he has not done everything that he can to express himself before he dies.
His father owned a large library, which he often read from to enhance his knowledge. He published his first book at age twenty one , though it didn't sell a single copy. His fortunes turned around after he married his wife Elizabeth in 1846 and published The Ring and The Book in 1869, which did away with more poetic language and reintroduced the dramatic monologue to literature.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Although she was born into an upper middle class family, she had no formal education, instead preferring to read the classics on her own. When she married Robert in 1846, the two ran off to Italy, where Elizabeth took up an interest in the American antislavery movement. Her works, including Aurora Leigh and Sonnets from the Portuguese (love letters to her husband), one of which is Sonnet 43, propelled her to even more fame than her husband.
This work from Browning's famous collection of love letters details Browning's degree of love to her husband. In it, she mentions that she will love her husband Robert even after death; the other responses she gives are answers to the rhetorical question: "How do I love thee?"
A poet from the Shakespearean era, he was a distant relative of St. Thomas More. He was originally Catholic, but changed to the Church of England; he did not complete his tertiary schooling due to his (originally) unwavering Catholicism. He served as secretary for one of the Queen's officials and married Anna More, but her father disapproved of the marriage. After years of living in poverty and writing magnificent poetry, he joined the clergy and became the dean of St. Paul's Cathedral. His early works were witty and humorous, but his later ones became more serious.
A Valediction Forbidding Mourning
This poem, written by John Donne, tells the story of two lovers who are parting from each other. It is a conceit because Donne compares the two lovers to the legs of a drawing compass; no matter how far apart the two lovers (Donne and his wife) travel, they will never be permanently torn apart.
A work of prose by John Donne. This work details the speaker's recovery from an illness, such as typhoid fever, and includes a section that mentions a tolling bell - the speaker is preparing to die from the illness. This work is also the origin of the phrase "No man is an island."
Pride and Prejudice
A novel by Jane Austen characterizing the life of Elizabeth Bennet, a young, lower class woman who seeks love from a man of the upper classes. After meeting her love and having certain prejudices about him, she finally marries him at the end of the story.
A French philosopher during the French Revolution era. He taught that man has the capability to think purely on reason and to think for himself. Because his thoughts differed from those of the insurgents, he was arrested for publishing an encyclopedia.
Another French philosopher during the Revolution period. He believed in the prevalence of human feeling and sentiment over reason. When he visited Diderot in prison, he concluded that "every human being lives life in a prison."
The period from 1833 to 1901 during which Victoria was Queen of England. During this time period, many new advances in technology, industrialization, and theories took hold in human lives. Britain also expanded greatly during this era, the Irish Potato Famine took place, Karl Marx published the Communist Manifesto.