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36 terms

Digestive System

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mouth
entrance of digestive system
pharynx
found in the back of the throat, used for digestion and respiration
epiglottis
small flap that closes entrance to trachea during digestion
esophagus
muscular tube that carries bolus from mouth to stomach
cardiac sphincter
muscle between the esophagus and stomach, prevents acidic gastric juices from flowing up into esophagus
stomach
the organ that releases acidic material to break down the food into smaller pieces
pyloric sphincter
muscle that allows food from stomach to pass into the small intestines
small intestines
majority of digestion takes place in here, divided into three parts
duodenum
first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
jejunum
second part of small intestines, absorbs nutrients from digested food
ileum
last part of small intestines, absorbs enzymes and anything left over by jejunum
ileocecal sphincter
muscle between small and large intestines, regulates flow of chyme
large intestines
receives and eliminates waste products from small intestines, absorbs water from remaining bolus
rectum
muscle after the large intestines, temporary storage for feces
anus
end of digestive tract, opening where feces are expelled
peristalsis
the method used in the esophagus and small intestines to move bolus through
pepsinogen and HCl
two main chemicals released in stomach
liver
organ that releases bile
emulsification
process in which bile breaks down fat
pancreas
organ that contains majority of digestive enzymes
gall bladder
organ that stores bile
capillaries
very small blood vessels that absorb nutrients
hepatic portal system
brings blood from digestive system to liver for processing
pepsinogen
released in stomach, reacts with HCl to create pepsin
lipase
enzyme that breaks down lipids
salivary amylase
released in mouth, breaks down food with teeth (mechanical digestion)
pancreatic amylase
enzyme from pancreas that breaks down starch
nuclease
enzyme that breaks down nucleotides
trypsin
enzyme that breaks down proteins
chymotrypsin
enzyme that breaks down peptide bonds, mostly inactive
maltase
enzyme that breaks down maltose
sucrase
enzyme that breaks down monosaccharides
lactase
enzyme that breaks down lactose
peptidase
enzyme that breaks down specific peptide bonds
feces
waste product, mostly cellulose, e. coli, water, and bilirubin
ruminates
food that is regurgitated for more mechanical digestion (common for cows, rabbits, etc.)