Ch.3+25: Intro to Biomolecules and Health

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Terms in this set (...)

What are the four major groups?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Examples of carbohydrates
Breads, potatoes, pasta, rice, and corn.
Examples of lipids
Cheese, lard, butter, ice cream, and oil.
Examples of proteins
Eggs, beans, milk, tofu, nuts, and meat.
Examples of nucleic acids
RNA+DNA
What is a monomer?
A small chemical subunit.
What are examples of monomers?
Glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.
What is a polymer?
A large molecule made by bonding monomers together in a specific way.
What are examples of a polymer?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
What is another name for a polymer?
Macromolecules.
How is digestion related?
Food enters the body as a polymer which is too big to be diffused into the bloodstream.
What is hydrolysis?
It breaks down polymers and into their monomers subunits.
What does hydrolysis require?
Water and digestive enzymes.
What is dehydration synthesis?
It builds monomers into the specific polymers that cells require.
What does dehydration synthesis produce?
Water
What are carbohydrates?
Polysaccharides or complex carbohydrates.
How are polysaccharides formed?
They are formed by joining many monosaccharides (simple sugars) by dehydration synthesis.
What atoms are only found in polysaccharides?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.
How many of your daily calories should come from carbohydrates?
45-65%
One gram of carbohydrates is how many calories?
4 calories
What is the primary function of sugars in cells?
Energy
What is high fructose corn syrup?
It is chemically modified glucose-fructose corn syrup mixture. It was created to make it enter the bloodstream faster. It makes things overly sweet so fruits and vegetables don't taste as good.
What are bad and good carbohydrates?
Bad carbohydrates: refined carbs that have low fiber
Good carbohydrates: whole grains, high fiber
What happens when cells have extra glucose?
The glucose is stored in a polymer form and can be converted into fat.
What are disaccharides?
Two simple sugars bonded together.
What is an example of a disaccharides?
Sucrose: glucose and fructose. It is table sugar.
What are examples of polysaccharides?
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and Chitin.
Starch
It is made by plants (potatoes). Animals ingest it and break it down.
Glycogen
It is made by animals. Animals break it down.
Cellulose
Also called fiber. It is made by plants. Animals ingest it but don't break it down. We need 25-28 grams per day.
Chitin
It forms the exoskeleton of anthropoids. It is also used to make surgical thread.
What do all lipids contain?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Like carbohydrates.
Are lipids non-polar or polar?
Non-polar.
What chemical property does non-polarity give lipids?
Hydrophobic.
What are some examples of lipids?
Fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, and steroids.
What are fats also called?
Triglycerides.
What percent of our daily calories should come from fat?
25-35%
One gram of fat contains how many calories?
9
What is a saturated fat?
They are fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains have no double or covalent bonds.
What does not having double or covalent bonds do to a fatty acid?
It maximizes the number of Hydrogen atoms.
What are some properties of saturated fatty acids?
No double bonds, solid at room temperature, Hydrogen atoms, made by animals.
Is a saturated molecule physically straight or curved?
Straight
What is an unsaturated fatty acid?
It contains one or more double covalent bonds in its hydrocarbon chain.
What does having one or more double covalent bonds do to the unsaturated fatty acids?
It means that less than the maximum number of Hydrogen atoms are present.
What are some properties of unsaturated fatty acids?
Double and covalent bonds, not saturated with hydrogen atoms, liquid at room temperature, and made by plants.
Which type of fat is good and which is bad?
Saturated fats are bad. Unsaturated are good.
What is an example of a saturated fatty acid?
Dairy products
What is an example of a unsaturated fatty acid?
Fish
What is the difference between a monounsaturated and a polyunsaturated fat?
Monounsaturated: one double bond.
Polyunsaturated: multiple double bonds.
What are examples of monounsaturated fats?
Nuts, Vegetable Oil, Sunflower Oil, Avocados.
What are examples of polyunsaturated fats?
Omega 3-Walnuts, Flaxseeds, Trout/Herring/Salmon, Soybean/Canola Oil
Omega 6-Soybeans, Corn, Safflower Oil
What is hydrogenation?
It starts with an unsaturated fatty acid that hydrogen atoms are added to in order to saturate the carbon bonds with hydrogen atoms.
What does hydrogenation produce?
Trans fatty acids.
What health risks are associated with trans fatty acids?
Heart Disease.
What are phospholipids?
They are important structures that compose cell membranes.
What is the difference between a phospholipid and fat?
Phospholipids contain a glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group.
What are some properties of waxes?
Hydrophobic, like fats but contain a glycerol and one fatty acids.
What are some functions of waxes?
Protection, Defense, Prevent drying out, and protects plants from insects.
What is cholesterol?
A lipid obtained in the diet and can be produced by the liver.
What and where is cholesterol found?
Cholesterol is often found as a saturated fat in the liver.
What are some examples of cholesterol being used in cell structures and functions?
Estrogen and Testosterone.
How is cholesterol packaged in our body?
It is either in an high density lipoprotein (HDL) or in a low density lipoprotein (LDL).
What happens when cholesterol is packaged as HDL?
The excess cholesterol is tagged to leave the liver. It exits with bile through the intestinal tract.
What happens when cholesterol is packaged as LDL?
The excess is tagged to be stored in the body. It can form plaques.
What decreases LDL and increases HDL?
No trans fat
Lose 10 pounds if overweight
Increase fiber
Increase Omega 3 and 6
Eat more fresh produce, nuts, olive oil, and fish
Eat less frozen food
Why does saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol increase a person's risk of developing atherosclerosis and heart disease?
They can accumulate as plaque in blood vessels.
Why would a person take a statin drug?
It slows down the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver.
How can it be corrected if it already happened?
Angioplasty
Stenting
Coronary Artery Bypass (CABG)
What are monomers that are bonded together to form proteins called?
Amino acids (or peptides).
What do all amino acids contain?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.
What percent of our daily calories should come from proteins?
10-15%
One gram is how many calories?
4`
Why do we not need as many proteins?
Proteins aren't used as much for energy.
How many amino acids are essential?
9
What makes an amino acid essential?
It means the body can't make them.
What is a complete and incomplete protein?
Complete: It contains all nine essential amino acids.
Incomplete: It is missing or very low in one or more essential amino acids.
What are some examples of complete proteins?
Animal sources: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy
Plant Sources: Soy, Quinoa, Hempseed
How is a protein's shape determined?
By the interaction between amino acids.
What happens when a protein is denatured?
The protein can no longer function. It changes the shape of a protein.
What can cause denaturation?
Major temperature changes
pH changes
Chemicals
Salts
What are the protein structures?
Primary, Secondary, Territary, and Quaternary
Primary Structure
This is when the amino acids are being put in the right order.
Secondary Structure
It can look like a corkscrew which is a helix or a pleated sheet. It is formed by hydrogen bonds between amino acids in the peptide chain.
Territary Structure
It is the complex 3D shape formed by multiple twists and bends.
Quaternary Structure
It is the final shape. It has two or more polypeptide chains bonded together.
What are some examples of various types of proteins?
Enzymes
Structural proteins
Hormones
Antibodies
What do enzymes do?
They are catalysts to chemical reactions.
What are nucleic acids?
They are polymers composed of nucleotide monomers.
What are examples of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What are DNA and RNA composed of?
Phosphate, Sugar, and Bases
What are the atoms in nucleotides?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous.
What three parts are a nucleotide made of?
A sugar: deoxyribose or ribose
A phosphate group
A nitrogenous base-Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.
What form does two DNA strands make?
Double Helix
What are properties of RNA?
Single stranded molecule
Uracil in place of Thymine
Instructions for building proteins