21 terms

Macromolecules test no pics1

biochemistry
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Macromolecule
large molecules in the body that provide many functions. proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid.
monomer
small unit that makes up polymers
polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
lipid
energy storage macromolecule. hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. often called fats
protein
polymer consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids. Many functions in the body. contains nitrogen
nucleic acid
macromolecule that stores genetic material. DNA and RNA.
amino acids
nitrogen containing monomer used to build proteins (20 types)
glucose
bodies main source of energy. sugar in blood
glycogen
storage carbohydrate. Made of glucose monomers
starch
storage form for sugars. long chain of glucose
nucleotide
monomer used to build nucleic acids
sugar
monomers of carbohydrates. Glucose is an example
lactose
sugar found in milk. Made of glucose and galactose.
enzyme
protein that speeds up chemical reactions. Catalase and lactase are examples
Saturated Fat
Fats that are solid at room temperature. They have full hydrogens and are straight so they can pack in tight.
unsaturated fat
Missing a hydrogen. They are liquids, oils, at room temperature and have a bend in their structure.
lactase
enzyme that breaks down the sugar lactose into usable glucose. not found in people who are lactose intolerant
insulin
A protein hormone that the pancreas produces that removes glucose from the blood and into the cells.
polysaccharide
polymer of sugar made of many single monomers. long starch molecules
monosaccharide
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
disaccharide
a sugar composed of two combined monosaccharides such as sucrose