62 terms

Biological Psychology

STUDY
PLAY
amygdala
linked to emotions, specifically rage and fear
hippocampus
processes explicit memories for storage
hypothalamus
linked to emotion and reward, this structure directs maintenance activities such as eating and body temperature and helps govern the pituitary gland
pituitary gland
the master, it is the most influential of its kind and regulates growth by controlling endocrine glands
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and speeds up impulses.
axon
passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons, influencing whether a neuron will generate a neural impulse
multiple sclerosis
the degeneration of the myelin sheath could cause ________
endorphins
Morphine elevates mood and eases pain, and is most similar to what neurotransmitter
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
system that controls self regulation of internal organs and glands
somatic nervous system
system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
motor neurons
carry instructions from the central nervous system out to the body's muscles and glands
sympathetic nervous system
system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
hormones
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
adrenal glands
releases epinephrine and norepinephrine ton increase heeart rate ad blood pressure preparing us for fight-or-flight
electroencephalogram
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
CT scan
a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain's structure.
PET
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. these scans show brain anatomy
medulla
Brain part that controls heartbeat and breathing
cerebellum
"the little brain" enables nonverbal learning and memory, and enables us to judge time, sounds and textures
limbic system
linked to emotions, memory and drives this brain structure includes the amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus
association areas
the most noticeable difference between human brains and other mammalian brains is the size of the ____________
cerebral cortex
a thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells, like a thinking crown
frontal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
temporal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
motor cortex
area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
somatosensory cortex
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
plasticity
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
neurogenesis
the formation of new neurons is called
glial cells
responsible to support, nourish, and protect neurons and may also play a role in learning and thinking.
corpus callosum
band of neural fibers that connect the brain hemispheres
split brain
condition in which the brain hemispheres are completely seperate
conciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
genes
the biochemical human building blocks of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins
monozygotic
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two
dizygotic
fraternal twins
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
epigenetics
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
afferent
sensory neurons
efferent
motor neurons
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
frontal lobe
occipital lobe
parietal lobe
Jack accidentally touches a hot stove. Such a strong stimulus:
would increase the amount of neurons that would fire
The peripheral nervous system consists of
motor and sensory neurons
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
brainstem
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by:
irritability
Which technique is most useful for seeing which regions of the brain are most active while a person reads a poem?
PET
If Dr. Barnes wanted to cause a cat to take on an attack posture, which of the cat's brain structures should he electrically stimulate?
Amygdala2
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:
cerebellum2
Nature and Nurture characteristics are most easily studied through this type of experiment
twin studies
what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors
nature
the influence of external factors that occur after conception, such as experience and learning
nurture
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.