163 terms

Anatomy final exam!

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touch
sight
hearing
smell
taste
equilibrium
name the 6 senses
fibrous
choroid
sensory
what are the three tunics of the eye?
fibrous tunic
the outer tunic of the eye; contains the sclera and the cornea
sclera
the "white of the eye"; very strong connective tissue; found in the fibrous tunic of the eye
cornea
the transparent, central anterior portion of the eye; allows light to pass through; repairs easily; the only human tissue that can be transplanted without fear of rejection; found in the fibrous tunic of the eye
choroid layer
this is the middle tunic of the eye; it is the blood-rich nutritive tunic; contains the ciliary body and the iris; the pigment in this prevents light from scattering
scattered
when the light comes out of its source, it either strikes an object or is ____; aka either absorbed or reflected
black
this color absorbs all light
whtie
this color reflects all light
ciliary body
smooth muscle found in the choroid layer of the eye
iris
this is the pigmented layer that gives the eye color; found in the choroid layer of the eye
pupil
this is the rounded opening in the iris of the eye
sensory tunic
aka the retina; this is the inner tunic of the eye; it contains photoreceptors which pass signals via a 2-neuron chain; also contains the foveo centralis and the optic disc
photoreceptors
rods and cones
rods
one type of photoreceptor; most are found towards the edge of the retina; they allow dim light vision and peripheral vision; perception is all in gray tones
cones
one type of photoreceptor; allows for color vision; densest in the center of the retina
fovea centralis
the area of the retina that only contains cones
optic disc
this is the blind spot of the eye; neither contains rods nor cones - no photoreceptors
cones
this type of photoreceptor has 3 types - red, blue and green; different ___ are sensitive to different wavelenghts
color blindness
this illness is the result of a lack of one cone type (either red, blue or green)
lens
the biconvex crystal-like structure of the eye; it is held in place by a suspensory ligament attached to the ciliary body
aqueous humor
the watery fluid found in the chamber between the lens and the cornea; it is similiar to blood plasma; it helps maintain intraocular pressure; provides nutrients for the lens and cornea
vitreous humor
this is the gel-like substance behind the lens; it keeps the eye from collapsing; lasts and lifetime and cannot be replaced; if your eye is punctured and this comes out, you will become blind in that eye
on the retina
where are images formed?
images are formed upside down and the brain then interprets the image correctly and turns it right side up
the cornea
what structure does a light ray first come in contact with?
pathway of light
goes through:
• Aqueous humor - bends the light
• Pupil - bends the light
• Lens - focuses the light on the retina
• Vitreous humor - bends the light
then it strikes the retina
outer ear
the part of the ear that is involved in hearing only; includes the pinna and external auditory canal
external auditory canal
a narrow in the temporal bone; found in the outer ear; ceruminous (wax) is present
middle ear
aka the typmanic cavity; this is the air-filled cavity of the ear within the temporal bone; has an open and closed tube
closed tube
found in the middle ear; it is the opening from the auditory canal that is covered by the tympanic membrane
open tube
found in the middle ear; it is the auditory tube connecting the middle ear with the throat; allows for equalizing pressure during yawning or swallowing; the tube is otherwise collapsed
inner ear
the part of the ear that has sense organs for hearing and balance; contains 3 bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup); filled with perilymph; has a maze of bony chambers within the temporal bone (cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canal)
hammer
anvil
stirrup
these 3 bones in the inner ear transfer sound to the inner ear; vibrations from the eardrum (tympanic membrane) move the hammer
perilymph
a water based fluid in the inner ear
sweet
salty
sour
bitter
name the 4 basic taste sensations/receptors
taste buds
these are found on the tongue and include gustatory cells which are the taste receptors; gustatory hairs are stimulated by chemicals dissolved in saliva; then impulses are carried to the brain
organ of corti
a structure of the ear located within in the cochlea; has receptors which are hair cells on the basilar membrane; gel-like tectorial membrane is capable of bending hair cells; the cochlear nerve attached to hair cells transmits nerve impulses to the temporal lobe
olfactory receptors
these are receptors found in the roof of the nose; has neurons with long cilia; chemicals must be dissolved in mucus for detection; impulses are transmitted via olfactory nerve; interpretations of smells are made in the cortex
photoreceptors
these are receptors for sight
mechanoreceptors
these are receptors for hearing
chemoreceptors
these are receptors for taste
touch receptors
these are receptors for touch
olfactory receptors
these are receptors for smell
gustatory receptors
these are receptors for taste
endocrine system
this system controls the following processes:
1. reproduction
2. growth and development
3. mobilization of body defenses
4. maintenance of much of homeostasis
5. regulation of metabolism
target cells
hormones are secreted by specialized cells into extracellular fluids; blood transfers hormones to target sites; these cells must have specific protein receptors to receive them; hormones binding influence the working of the cells
amino acid-based hormones
steroids
prostaglandins
what are the 3 chemical types of hormones?
amino-acid based hormones
a type of chemical hormone; includes proteins, peptides (small proteins), and amines
steroids
a type of chemical hormone made from cholesterol; these are the ones lance armstrong uses, but we use them everyday; they are needed to make the reproductive hormones
prostaglandins
a type of chemical hormone made from highly active lipids
negative feedback
hormone levels in the blood are maintained by _____ _____.
a stimulus or low hormone levels in the blood triggers the release of more hormone AND hormone release stops once an appropriate level in the blood is reached
calcium
when there is:
1. too much of this in the blood -- the thyroid releases calcitonin which will decrease the levels of this
2. too little of this in the blood -- parathryoid glands activate osteoclasts in the b one which will make the blood levels rise back to normal levels
tropic hormones
hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; a tropic hormone; this regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal cortex
TSH
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone; a tropic hormone; this influences growth and activity of the thyroid
FSH
Follice-stimulating Hormone; a tropic hormone and sex hormone; stimulates follicle development in ovaries; stimulates sperm development in testes
LH
Luteinizing Hormone (Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone in males); a type of tropic and sex hormone; triggers ovulation; causes ruptured follicle to become the corpus luteum; stimulates testosterone production in males
hormonal
humoral
neural
name the 3 different types of stimuli that stimulate the release of hormones
hormonal stimuli
the stimulation of the release of hormones when endocrine glands are activated by other hormones; hormones of the anterior pituitary gland use this
humoral stimuli
when changing blood levels of certain ions stimulate hormone release
neural stimuli
when nerve impulses stimulate hormone release
anterior pituitary gland
this gland contains proteins on the surface because they are not soluble in lipid; it acts through second-messenger systems; hormone release is regulated by hormonal stimuli. mostly negative feedback
growth hormone (GH)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland
target organ: skeletal muscles and long bones
function:
• Genral metabolic hormone
• Causes amino acids to be built into proteins
• Causes fats to be broken down for a source of energy
prolactin (PRL)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland
target organ: mammary glands
function:
• Stimulates and maintains milk production following childbirth
• Function in males unknown
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland
target organ: adrenal cortex
function: regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal cortex
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland
target organ: thryoid
function: influences growth and activity of the thyroid
gonadotropic hormones
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland;
aka sex hormones
target organ: gonads (sex organs)
function: regulates hormonal activity of the gonads
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland;
a type of sex hormone
target organ: ovaries and testes
function:
• Stimulates follicle development in ovaries
• Stimulates sperm development in testes
luteinizing hormone (LH)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland;
a type of sex hormone
target organ: ovaries and testes
function:
• Triggers ovulation
• Causes ruptured follicle to become the corpus luteum
• Stimulates testosterone production in males - also referred to as Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland;
the name for luteinizing hormone in men
target organ: testes
function: stimulates testosterone production in males
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
what are the 2 hormones of the posterior pituitary gland?
oxytocin
a hormone of the posterior pituitary gland
target organ: uterus and mammary glands
function:
• Stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor
• Causes milk ejection
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone of the posterior pituitary gland
target organ: kidneys
function:
• Water retention-abnormal amounts of water/fluids in the circulatory system
• Can inhibit urine production
• In large amounts, causes vasoconstriction leading to increased blood pressure (vasopressin)
antagonists
hormones that work against each other in order to maintain blood sugar homeostasis;
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
endocrine glands
ductless glands
exocrine glands
glands that release products through ducts (lacrimal, sebaceous, and sweat glands)
scarlet red
blood is this color when it is oxygen-rich
dull red
blood is this color when it is oxygen-poor
7.35 and 7.45
the pH of blood must remain between these 2 numbers
45%
what is the percent of formed elements (living cells) in the blood?
55%
what is the percent of plasma (non-living matrix) in the blood?
erythrocytes
red blood cells;
they carry oxygen;
biconcave disks, bags of hemoglobin, no nucleus, very few organelles;
in the body for 100-120 days;
can not divide, grow or synthesize proteins
hemoglobin
this is a iron-containing protein found in the blood that binds oxygen
leukocytes
white blood cells;
important in defense against diseases;
nucleus and organelles, can move in and out of blood vessels, moves with ameboid motion; responds to chemicals released by damaged tissue
red
are there way more red or white blood cells in the body?
neutrophils
a type of leukocyte (white blood cell);
multi-lobed nucleus with fine granules; phagocytes at active sites of infection;
granulocyte
eoisinophils
a type of leukocyte (white blood cell);
large brick-red cytoplasmic granules; found in response to allergies and parasitic worms;
granulocyte
basophils
a type of leukocyte (white blood cell);
have histamine-containing granules; initiate inflammation;
granulocyte
lymphocytes
a type of leukocyte (white blood cell);
nucleus fills most of the cell; play an important role in the immune response;
agranulocytes
monocytes
a type of leukocyte (white blood cell);
largest of the white blood cells; function as macrophages; imporant in fighting chronic infection;
agranulocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes
which 2 types of leukocytes (white blood cells) are agranulocytes?
platelets
these are derived from ruptured cells and are needed for the blood clotting process; normal count for these is about 300,000 mm cubed
genetically determined proteins
what determines someones blood type?
blood type
in order to find this, antibodies that cause blood with certain proteins of red blood cells to clump are NOT found in the blood; if it clumps it is not the right blood type
foreign antigen
this is a foreign protein that can be attacked by the immune system
transfusion reaction
this is the body's response to foreign proteins by causing the donor cells to clump, eventually releasing hemoglobin which can cause kidney failure
antigen
a substance that stimulates an immune response
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
A
B
AB
O
what are the 4 human blood groups?
group A
this blood group has only the A antigen on red blood cells (and B antibody is in the plasma)
group B
this blood group has only the B antigen on red blood cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
group AB
this blood group has both A and B antigen on red blood cells (but neither A nor B antibodies in the plasma)
group O
this blood group has neither A nor B antigens on red blood cells (but both A and B antibodies are in the plasma)
A
O
what blood types can type A receive from?
B
O
what blood types can type B receive from?
AB
A
B
O
what blood types can type AB receive from?
O
what blood types can type O receive from?
A
AB
what blood types can type A donate to?
B
AB
what blood types can type B donate to?
AB
what blood types can type AB donate to?
A
B
AB
O
what blood types can type O donate to?
ABO and Rh blood group antigens
which blood groups cause the strongest transfusion reactions?
O positive
what is the most common blood type in the American population?
Rh postivie
what is the most common Rh type in the American population?
agglutination
a clumping of bacteria or red blood cells when held together by antibodies
coagulation
when an injured tissue releases thromboplastin which signals to being a clotting cascade; fibrin forms a meshwork
hematopoiesis
the term for blood cell formation; occurs in the red bone marrow; all blood cells are derived from a common stem cell
lymphoid stem cells
this type of hemocytoblast produces lymphocytes
myeloid stem cells
this type of hemocytoblast produces other formed elements
hemostasis
the term for the stoppage of blood flow (blood clotting); it is the result of a break in a blood vessel;
has 3 phases:
1. platelet plug formation
2. vascular spasms
3. coagulation
cardiovascular system
a closed system of the heart and blood vessels where the heart pumps blood and the blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body
cardiovascular system
the function of this system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products
heart
this organ is located in the thorax between the lungs; the pointed apex is directed towards the left hip; it is about the size of a fist
pericardium
a double serous membrane that covers the heart; 2 layers -- visceral and parietal
visceral pericardium
the layer next to the heart
parietal pericardium
the outside layer of the heart
serous fluid
this type of fluid fills the space between the layers of the pericardium which covers the heart
4
how many chambers does the heart have?
atria
these are the receiving chambers of the heart; left and right one
ventricles
these are the discharging chambers of the heart; left and right one
path of blood
The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs and exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen, then returns to the left side of the heart, where the oxygenated blood is pumped back to the body. This cycle repeats endlessly.
pulmonary circuit
this is the circulation of deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
systemic circuit
this is the circulation of oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body; it delivers oxygen to all different parts
aorta
blood leaves the left ventricle through this vessel; main artery (leading directly from the heart)
pulmonary arteries
blood leaves the right ventricle through these vessels; arteries
vena cava
blood enters the right atrium through this vessel; vein
pulmonary veins
blood enters the left atrium through these 4 vessels; veins
vein
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
artery
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
heart contractions
these are initiated by the sinoatrial node; sequential stimulation occurs at ohter autorythmic cells
cardiac cycle
the processes of atria contracting simultaneously, atria relax and then the ventricles contract
systole
contraction of the heart
diasotle
relaxation of the heart
small push-big push
what does lub-dub stand for?
double pump
the term that demonstrates how the during the mid-to-late diastole (relaxation), the heart has ventricular filling and artrial contraction
coronary circulation
this is the heart's own nourishing circulatory system since the blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium; it is made up of coronary arteries and cardiac veins; the blood empties into the right atrium via the coronary sinus
nodal system
this is the heart's conduction system; heart muscle cells contract, without nerve impulses, in a regular continuous way; special tissue sets the pace of all the cells together, the sinoatrial node (pacemaker)
arteries
these blood vessels have to deal with higher pressure from the big push so they have thicker walls; includes arterioles
capillaries
these blood vessels have thin, 1 cell thick walls; they are thin in order to allow for exchanges between blood and tissue
veins
these blood vessels have to deal with lower pressure from the small push so they have thinner walls, but they are much bigger than arteries, includes venules
arterial blood
this type of blood is pumped by the heart
venous blood
the veins use a milking action of muscles to move this type of blood
capillary beds
these consist of 2 types of vessels - vascular shunt and true capillaries
vascular shunt
this vessel directly connects an arteriole to a venule
true capillaries
these are exchanging vessels; oxygen and nutrients cross to cells - carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products cross into blood
concentration gradient
substances are exchanged at the capillary beds due to the _____ _____.
mechanisms used for exchange:
1. direct diffusion across plasma membrane
2. endocytosis or exocytosis
3. some capillaries have gaps (intercellular clefts)
4. pores of some capillaries
pulse
this is the pressure wave of blood; it results from a ventricular push; it is monitored and easily palpated at pressure points
radial artery
the pressure point in the wrist
carotid artery
the pressure point on the neck
in large arteries
where is blood pressure measured?
systolic
the term that refers to blood pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction
diastolic
the term that refers to blood pressure when ventricles relax
decrease
pressure in the blood vessels (increase/decrease) as the distance away from the heart increases