science book final: inside earth
Terms in this set (34)
how have scientists learned about Earth's inner structure?
They use direct evidence from rock samples and indirect evidence from seismic waves.
what are the characteristics of the Mantle?
It is made of very hot, but solid, rock. There is the Lithosphere, which is the uppermost, rigid layer of the earth's inside. Then there's the Asthenosphere, which is the layer below the Lithosphere that is somewhat soft, like tar. Lastly, there is the Lower Mantle, which is solid.
what are the characteristics of the crust?
The crust is a layer of solid rock that includes both dry land (continental crust) and the ocean floor (oceanic crust).
What are the characteristics of the core?
The outer core is the layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core. The inner core is a dense, solid ball of metal, due to immense pressure. Movements in the core create Earth's magnetic field.
Radiation produced by earthquakes that travel through earth.
The force pushing down on an area.
Dark rock that makes up oceanic crust
Light colored rock that makes up continental crust.
what makes up the core?
The core is made mostly of the metals iron and nickel.
The transfer of energy through space
The transfer of energy through contact or within a material
Transfer of energy through a fluid
Flow that transfers heat within a fluid
what causes convection currents?
The heating and cooling of a fluid, changes in the fluids density, and the force of gravity.
convection currents in earth
Heat from the core and the mantle itself cause convection currents in the mantle.
theory of continental drift
Th econtinents were once joined as a single landmass and have since then drifted apart and back together many times.
evidence for continental drift
Land features (mountains, etc.), fossils (identical fossils found on countries where the animals could not have survived, etc.), and evidence of climate change (glaciers, etc.).
Ridges that wind beneath Earth's oceans.
The sea spreads apart along both sides of a mid-ocean ridge as new crust is added, dragging the continents along with them.
Deep, underwater canyons where subduction takes place.
Process by which ocean floor sinks back into the mantle at a deep ocean trench.
the theory of plate techtonics
Pieces of the earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
Separate sections of the lithosphere
Break in the earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other
Two plates move away from each other, causing rift valleys on land, and forming near mid ocean ridges under water
Two plates come together, forming mountains and subduction zones
Two plates move in the opposite directions, rubbing against each other and causing earthquakes.
Force that acts on a rock to change its shape or volume.
Pulls on the crust, stretching the rock so it becomes thinner. Occurs when two plates are moving apart.
Squeezes a rock until it folds or breaks.
Pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions
Caused by tension, the hanging wall is above, and the footwall is below. Occur along divergent boundaries.
Forms when compression occurs, the hanging wall is below and the footwall is above.
The rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways, with little or no up or down movement. Occurs with shearing.