20 terms

Environmental Science for AP - Friedland and Reylea Module 7

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Biogeochemical cycle
The movements of matter within and between ecosystems.
Hydrologic cycle
The movement of water through the biosphere.
Transpiration
The release of water from leaves during photosynthesis.
Evapotranspiration
The combine amounts of evaporation and transpiration.
Runoff
Water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
Carbon cycle
The movement of carbon around the biosphere.
Macronutrient
One of six key elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur.
Limiting nutrient
A nutrient required for the growth of an organism but available in a lower quantity than other nutrients.
Nitrogen cycle
The movement of nitrogen around the biosphere.
Nitrogen fixation
A process by which some organisms can invert nitrogen gas molecules directly into ammonia.
Nitrification
The conversion of ammonia (NH4+) into nitrite (NO2-) and then into nitrate (NO3-).
Mineralization
The process by which fungal and bacterial decomposes break down the organic matter found in dead bodies and waste products and convert it into inorganic compounds.
Assimilation
The process by which producers incorporate elements into their tissues.
Ammonification
The process by which fungal and bacterial decomposers break down the organic nitrogen found in dead bodies and waste products and convert it into inorganic ammonium (NH4+)
Dentrification
The conversion of nitrate (NO3-) in a series of steps into the gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and, eventually, nitrogen gas (N2), which is emitted into the atmosphere.
Leaching
The transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater.
Phosphorus cycle
The movement of phosphorus around the biosphere.
Algal bloom
A rapid increase in the algal population of a waterway.
Hypoxic
Low in oxygen.
Sulfur cycle
The movement of sulfur around the biosphere.
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