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interstital fluid, blood
Endocrine glands are those that secrete their substance into the surrounding ______ ______ and the _______.
Down-regulation is a process by which target cells alter their responsiveness by ______ the number of hormone receptors.
Cancer cells can achieve their rapid growth by increasing the number of cellular growth receptors. This process is known as ______-______.
During the stress response the liver will produce ______-______ growth factor, which increases blood glucose levels.
Hormones which bind to receptors on the same cell that secreted them are ______ hormones.
What type of hormone circulates as unbound-hormone in the blood stream and doesn't diffuse through the cell membrane?
A lipid-soluble hormone binds to an intracellular receptor and influences the expression of ______ in a cell.
PTH and calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin) are antagonists in the control of blood Ca++. This is an example of a ______-_______ loop.
In a feedback loop, childbirth and lactation are examples of _________ __________.
When the combination of two hormones creates a stronger response it is a ________ effect.
ADH (antidiuretic hormone), diabetes insipidus
Hyposecretion of ______ will result in the excretion of very dilute urine, a symptom of ______ ______.
Pituitary ______ results from insufficient hGH secretion during an individual's growth phase.
The anabolic effects of ______ ______ hormone are widespread because of the number of cells with hormone receptors.
Carpal tunnel, arthritis, dense bones, and enlarged soft tissues are related to ________.
TBG (thyroxine-binding globuline)
What protein transports the majority of thyroid hormone in the blood?
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
T3 and T4 alters an individual's metabolism by increasing their ______ ______ ______.
Because many metabolic reactions release heat, increased nutrient use and ATP production assist with ________.
Insufficient thyroid hormone secretion during childhood causes ______ ______, formerly known as cretinism.
The zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis produce hormones from the ______ region of the adrenal gland.
increase, Na+, water
Aldosterone released from the adrenal cortex ________ blood pressure by encouraging the reabsorption of ______ and ______ from the kidneys.
A patient with elevated levels of aldosterone would be expected to have a decreased urine _____ level due to the excretion of ______.
androgens / gonadocorticoids
After menopause, women receive most of their estrogen from the conversion of ______ to estrogen.
Decreased cortisol, decreased aldosterone, low blood glucose, low blood pressure, low blood Na+ and high blood K+ would most likely indicate _________ disease.
pancreatic islets or islets of langerhans
Endocrine cells in the pancreas are contained within ______ ______.
Circulating-hormones are secreted into the ______ ______ and then into the bloodstream
follicle stimulating (FSH)
______ ______ hormone stimulates both male and female gonads to develop reproductive cells.
Thymosin is produced by the ______ and assists the immune system by influencing the proliferation and maturation of immune cells.
The general adaptation response stages include fight-or-flight, resistance reaction, and ________.
Among the functions of the adrenal cortex in the stress response is the release of _______, the main glucocorticoid.
The pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands are all the ________ organs of the endocrine system
The hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, and placenta are all _________ organs of the endocrine system
A __________ is a mediator molecule secreted from one part of the body that circulates via the body fluids to cells in another part of the body.
__________ _______ are the specific cells of the body that have receptors for hormones
___________ function to regulate the chemical composition and volume of the blood, metabolism and energy balance, contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers, glandular secretion, growth and development, reproduction, sleep-wake cycles, and some immune functions.
Several mediators act as both neurotransmitters and hormones. One familiar example is ______________, which is released as a neurotransmitter by sympathetic postganglionic neurons and as a hormone by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medullae.
If a hormone is present in excess, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease—an effect called _______-________.
When a hormone is deficient, the number of receptors may increase. This phenomenon, known as ____-___________
Most endocrine hormones are _________ hormones—they pass from the secretory cells that make them into interstitial fluid and then into the blood
Other hormones, termed ______ hormones, act locally on neighboring cells or on the same cell that secreted them without first entering the bloodstream
autocrines, up regulation
Cancer cells will be _________ and will also increase its sensitivity to hormones through _____-_________ which cause the cells to grow and divide.
The _____-_______ hormones include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide.
_________ hormones are derived from cholesterol. Each is unique due to the presence of different chemical groups attached at various sites on the four rings at the core of its structure. These small differences allow for a large diversity of functions.
Two thyroid hormones are synthesized by attaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine. The benzene ring of tyrosine plus the attached iodines make ____ and ____ very lipid soluble.
The gas ______ ______ is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Its synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.
The _______-_______ hormones include amine hormones, peptide and protein hormones, and eicosanoid hormones.
________ hormones are synthesized by decarboxylating (removing a molecule of CO2) and otherwise modifying certain amino acids. They are called amines because they retain an amino group (—NH3+). The catecholamines—epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine—are synthesized by modifying the amino acid tyrosine. Histamine is synthesized from the amino acid histidine by mast cells and platelets. Serotonin and melatonin are derived from tryptophan.
_________ hormones and protein hormones are amino acid polymers. The smaller peptide hormones consist of chains of 3 to 49 amino acids; the larger protein hormones include 50 to 200 amino acids. Examples of peptide hormones are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin; protein hormones include human growth hormone and insulin. Several of the protein hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone, have attached carbohydrate groups and thus are glycoprotein hormones.
The __________ hormones are derived from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon fatty acid. The two major types of are prostaglandins and leukotrienes. They are important local hormones, and they may act as circulating hormones as well.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines) are secreted from _________ ________
Human growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone are secreted from ________ __________
Most water-soluble hormone molecules circulate in the watery blood plasma in a "free" form (not attached to other molecules), but most lipid-soluble hormone molecules are bound to ________ proteins.
Function of ________ proteins are they make lipid-soluble hormones temporarily water-soluble, thus increasing their solubility in blood. They retard passage of small hormone molecules through the filtering mechanism in the kidneys, thus slowing the rate of hormone loss in the urine. They provide a ready reserve of hormone, already present in the bloodstream.
lipid-soluble, gene, RNA
A free ______-_______ hormone molecule diffuses from the blood, through interstitial fluid, and through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane into a cell.
If the cell is a target cell, the hormone binds to and activates receptors located within the cytosol or nucleus. The activated receptor-hormone complex then alters ______ expression: It turns specific genes of the nuclear DNA on or off.
As the DNA is transcribed, new messenger _____ (mRNA) forms, leaves the nucleus, and enters the cytosol. There, it directs synthesis of a new protein, often an enzyme, on the ribosomes.
water-soluble, cyclic AMP, kinases
The first 3 steps: A _______-______ hormone (the first messenger) diffuses from the blood through interstitial fluid and then binds to its receptor at the exterior surface of a target cell's plasma membrane. The hormone-receptor complex activates a membrane protein called a G protein. The activated G protein in turn activates adenylate cyclase.
Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into ______ _____ (cAMP). Because the enzyme's active site is on the inner surface of the plasma membrane, this reaction occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
Cyclic AMP (the second messenger) activates one or more protein _______, which may be free in the cytosol or bound to the plasma membrane. A protein kinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates (adds a phosphate group to) other cellular proteins (such as enzymes). The donor of the phosphate group is ATP, which is converted to ADP.
phosphorylate, physiological, off
In the 3 steps: Activated protein kinases __________ one or more cellular proteins. Phosphorylation activates some of these pro-teins and inactivates others, rather like turning a switch on or off.
Phosphorylated proteins in turn cause reactions that produce ___________ responses. Different protein kinases exist within different target cells and within different organelles of the same target cell. Thus, one protein kinase might trigger glycogen synthesis, a second might cause the breakdown of triglyceride, a third may promote protein synthesis, and so forth. As noted in step 4, phosphorylation by a protein kinase can also inhibit certain proteins. For example, some of the kinases unleashed when epinephrine binds to liver cells inactivate an enzyme needed for glycogen synthesis.
After a brief period, an enzyme called phosphodiesterase inactivates cAMP. Thus, the cell's response is turned ____ unless new hormone molecules continue to bind to their receptors in the plasma membrane.
Many hormones exert at least some of their physiological effects through the ________ synthesis of cAMP. Examples include antidiuretic hormone (ADH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucagon, epinephrine, and hypothalamic-releasing hormones
In other cases, such as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), the level of cyclic AMP __________ in response to the binding of a hormone to its receptor.
receptors, interpretation center, response
For the negative feedback to function correctly, there must be __________ for the stimulus, ____________ ___________, and an initiated ___________
The __________ of a target cell to a hormone depends on (1) the hormone's concentration, (2) the abundance of the target cell's hormone receptors, and (3) influences exerted by other hormones.
Hormones can also interact with each other. In some cases, to get the desired effect, two different hormones must both be present. This is referred to as a ___________ __________
If twp hormones dictate similar actions and they work together to create an even more powerful result, this is a _____________ ___________
Because most hormones work as part of a negative feedback system, there are other hormones that oppose their actions. If a one hormone opposes the action of another, this is termed as an ____________ __________.
For many years, the pituitary gland or __________ was called the "master" endocrine gland because it secretes several hormones that control other endocrine glands.
adenohypophysis, distalis, tuberalis
The anterior pituitary (anterior lobe), also called the ____________, accounts for about 75% of the total weight of the gland. The anterior pituitary consists of two parts in an adult: The pars _______ is the larger portion, and the pars ________ forms a sheath around the infundibulum
The posterior pituitary (posterior lobe) , also called the ____________, also consists of two parts: the pars _________, the larger bulbar portion, and the infundibulum.
To stimulate the neurohypophysis, the hypothalamus sends nerve impulses to the neurohypophysis. These nerue impulses stimulate the neurohypophysis to secrete
_________ and _________
axons, produce, hypothalamus
The posterior pituitary or neurohypophlais consists of special _______ and axon terminals from neurosecretory neurons. The posterior pituitary does not __________ any hormones. The hormones from the posterior pituitary are produced by neurosecretory cells within nuclei of the ____________ and secreted down the axons with vesicles to be stored and later released frorn the posterior pituitary.
Hormones from the hypothalamus that stimulate the
release of hormones from the adenohypophysis are called ___________ hormones
Hormones from the hypothalamus that inhibit the release of hormones from the adenohypophysls are called __________ hormones
Hormones from the adenohypophysis that act on
other endocrine glands are called __________ hormones
insulinlike growth factors
Human growth hormone in turn stimulates several tissues to secrete __________ __________ _________ or (IGFs), hormones that stimulate general body growth and regulate aspects of metabolism
thyroid stimulating hormone
__________ _________ _________ or (TSH) controls the secretions and other activities of the thyroid gland.
_____________ secrete two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone
__________ __________ __________ (FSH) and __________ ___________ (LH) both act on the gonads. They stimulate secretion of estrogens and progesterone and the maturation of oocytes in the ovaries, and they stimulate sperm production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.
____________ secrete prolactin (PRL), which initiates milk production in the mammary glands.
adrenocorticotropic, melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Corticotrophs secrete ____________ hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol. Some corticotrophs, remnants of the pars intermedia, also secrete __________ _________ ________ (MSH).
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)/somatostatin.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin is inhibited by:
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) aka dopamine
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH); TRH is inhibited by:
A patient's symptoms will always imply an over-production (___________) or underproduction (___________), but there are a number of possibilities that can cause these
Decreased hormone receptors, second-messenger system defects, lack of hormone precursors, degraded hormones, poor blood flow (ischemia) and too little hormone production are all signs of _____________
Tumors of endocrine origin-causing excess hormone release, benign or malignant, absence of normal feeback loops and excessive hormone production are all signs of _____________
____________ ___________ is caused by hyposecretion of hGH during childhood. Without hGH, the epiphyseal plates will
close before the chiid achieves a normal adult height. The deficient growth of tissue will affect all of the body systems; however, the child will have normal body proportions.
_________ is caused by hypersecretion of hGH during childhood, Overall body proportions will remain the consistent, but the patient willbe very tal1. The main cause is a _________ of the anterior pituitary.
___________ is a disorder caused by excessive HGH secretion; the problem occurs during adulthood after a person is done growing. After epiphyseal plate closure, one ceases to grow linearly, but tissues don't cease to grow. Under the influence of ______, bones can become
thicker and denser and tissues of the eyelids, tongue, nose,lips, and skin can enlarge. The enlargement of these tissues can cause circulatory, nerve, and skin problems.
Human growth hormone (hGH), somatotropin
_________ __________ ________ (hGH)or ___________stimulates liver, muscle, cartilage, bone, and other tissues to synthesize and secrete insulinlike growth factors (IGFs); IGFs promote growth of body cells, protein synthesis, tissue repair, lipolysis, and elevation of blood glucose concentration
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin
____________ __________ ___________ (TSH) or ______________stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
____________ __________ __________ (FSH) in females, initiates development of oocytes and induces ovarian secretion of estrogens. In males, stimulates testes to produce sperm.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
____________ __________ (LH) in females, stimulates secretion of estrogens and progesterone, ovulation, and formation of corpus luteum. In males, stimulates testes to produce testosterone.
___________ (PRL) together with other hormones, promotes milk secretion by the mammary glands
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin
________________ __________ (ACTH) or ____________Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) by the adrenal cortex.
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
_______________ ____________ __________ (MSH) exact role in humans is unknown but may influence brain activity; when present in excess, can cause darkening of skin.
paraventricular, supraoptic, hypothalamohypophyseal
The hypothalamic nuclei that produce the posterior pituitary hormones are the _________ and __________nuclei. The axons from these nuclei form the
The hypothalamophypophyseal tract ends near capillaries of the psoterior pituirary. When ___________, the hormones are released into the bloodstream
_________ has two target tissues during and after the delivery of a baby, the uterus and the breasts. Through __________ feedback, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to help with the deiivery of the infant' It also stimulates milk release ("let down") from the breasts in response to the sucking mechanism of the baby"
oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone
The paraventricular nuclear cells and supraoptic nuclear cells associated with the neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary produce _________ and __________ __________(ADH).
If the blood osmotic pressure _________, in an effort to maintain fluid equilibrium, the body will try to increase the reabsorption of water and decrease the amount lost in the urine.
_____ acts on three specific target tissues: kidneys, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, and the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels.
______ specifically influences the collecting tubules
(ducts) in the kidneys to increase water reabsorption and limit the amount of water excreted as urine. As water reabsorption is increased, there is a resulting increase in the blood volume and thus the blood pressure.
______ also increases the blood pressure by constricting the smooth muscle cells of arterioles.
The most common abnormality associated with dysfunction of the posterior pituitary is ___________ __________ and the patient suffers from polyuria.
Diabetes insipidus consists of two physiological types: ____________ which is insufficient production or secreation of ADH or _____________ which is diminished renal response to ADH that is produced
The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped and consists of two lobes, the left and right. The tissue connection between the
two lobes is called the _________.
Microscopically, the thyroid is made up of small spherical sacs called thyroid _________.
The follicular cells produce two hormones: __________, which is also called tetraiodothyronine or T4 because it contains four atoms of iodine, and _____________or T3, which contains three atoms of iodine.
A few cells called ___________ cells or C cells lie between follicles in the thyroid. They produce the hormone ____________, which helps regulate calcium homeostasis.
The main functional unit of the thyroid gland is the thyroid follicle. Each foilicle consists of a central, internal space cailed the _______, surrounded by a wall of cells called follicular cells
When the follicular cells of the thyroid are ________, their shape is low cuboidal to squamous, but under the influence of TSH they become _______ in secretion and range from cuboidal to low columnar in shape
hypothalamus, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicular
Low T3 and T4 levels or a low metabolic rate stimulates the ____________ to secrete thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which results in the anterior pituitary producing _________ ___________ _________ (___), TSH binds to TSH receptors in the ___________ cells
and activates a number of processes required
to synthesize T3 and T4
Step 1 in T3 and T4 synthesis Thyroid follicular cells trap iodide ions (I-) by actively transporting them from the blood into the cytosol. As a result, the thyroid gland normally contains most of the iodide in the body.
Synthesis of thyroglobulin (TGB)
Step 2 in T3 and T4 synthesis TGB is a glycoprotein produced by follicular cells. It contains large numbers of
the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is the site on the TGB molecule that will bind with iodine.
Oxidation of iodide
Step 3 in T3 and T4 synthesis Before iodide can bind to tyrosine, it must be oxidized and combine with another
iodide to form and iodine molecule (I2).
Iodinaton of tyrosine
Step 4 in T3 and T4 synthesis The side chain of tyrosine may pick up one (T1) or two (T2) iodine molecules.
Coupling of T1 and T2 to make T3 and T4
Step 5 in T3 and T4 synthesis As one of the last steps, two tyrosine molecules are joined to form either T3 (T1 + T2) or T4 (T2 + T2).
Pinocytosis and digestion of colloid
Step 6 in T3 and T4 synthesis Once synthesized, the iodine-containing TGB reenters the foilicuiar cells and digestive enzymes break down the molecule, releasing the formed T3 and T4.
Secretion of thyroid hormones
Step 7 in T3 and T4 synthesis T3 and T4 are lipid soluble, so they freely pass the cell membrane into the interstitial fluid and into the blood.
Transport of T3 and T4 in the blood
Step 8 in T3 and T4 synthesis Once in the blood stream, 99o% of the secreted hormone binds to transport
proteins, mainly thyroxine-binding
globulin (TBG), not to be confused with (TGB)
basal metabolic rate
Thyroid hormones increase __________ _______ _______ (BMR), the rate of oxygen consumption under standard or basal conditions (awake, at rest, and fasting), by stimulating the use of cellular oxygen to produce ATP.
A second major effect of thyroid hormones is to stimulate synthesis of additional sodium-potassium pumps (Na+/K+ ATPase), which use large amounts of ATP to continually eject sodium ions (Na+) from the cytosol into the extracellular fluid and potassium ions (K+) from the extracellular fluid into the cytosol. As cells produce and use more ATP, more heat is given off, and body temperature rises. This phenomenon is called the _________ effect.
In the regulation of metabolism, the thyroid hormones stimulate _______ synthesis and increase the use of glucose and fatty acids for ATP production. They also increase lipolysis and enhance cholesterol excretion, thus ________ blood cholesterol level.
The thyroid hormones __________ some actions of the catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) because they up-regulate beta (β) receptors. For this reason, symptoms of hyperthyroidism include increased heart rate, more forceful heartbeats, and increased blood pressure.
human growth hormone, insulin
Together with ________ _________ ________ and _________, thyroid hormones accelerate body growth, particularly the growth of the nervous and skeletal systems. Deficiency of thyroid hormones during fetal development, infancy, or childhood causes severe mental retardation and stunted bone growth.
Low basal metabolic rate, cold intolerant, constipation, decreased respiratory rate, low heart rate, weight gain, lethargic are symptoms of ___________
High basal metabolic rate, heat intolerant, diarrhea, increased respiratory rate, high heart rate, weight loss, anxiousness are all signs of _____________
congenial hypothyroidism and myxedema are both hypothyroid disorders, congenital
hypothyroidism occurs in _________; myxedema in ___________.
_________ disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the person produces antibodies that mimic the action of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The antibodies continually stimulate the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormones. A primary sign is an enlarged thyroid, which may be two to three times its normal size.
Graves' patients often have a peculiar edema behind the eyes, called _____________, which causes the eyes to protrude
Partially embedded in the posterior surface of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland are several small, round masses of tissue called the ___________ ________
____________, more commonly just referred to as calcitonin, is produced by the
parafollicular cells of the thyroid, also called C cells. The name is actually quite intuitive, thyro- meaning relating to the thyroid, and calcitonin, referring to the fact that its action is to regulate calcium levels
An increase in blood calcium levels will stimulate the parafollicular cells of the thyroid to secrete __________
Calcitonin inhibits ___________ activity and uptake of calcium and phosphates into the bone matrix. This will cause a decrease in blood
calcium and phosphate levels.
___________ hormone controls the levels of calcium (Ca²⁺) magnesium (Mg²⁺), and phosphate (HPO₄²⁻ ) ions in the blood.
The action of PTH is to increase the number and activity of ______________. This causes an increase in bone reabsorption and releases more ions into the blood.
Increases blood calcium levels, Increases blood magnesium levels, Decreases blood phosphate levels, Increases levels of calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) are all actions of the ___________ ____________
_____ regulates these ions by activating osteoclasts, decreasing
calcium loss in the urine, increasing calcium and magnesium absorption in the intestines by increasing the amount of calcitriol (vitamin D), and increasing phosphate loss in the urine.
kidneys, adrenal cortex, medulla
Individuals have a pair of adrenal glands and each one is anatomically superior to one of the ________. Each adrenal gland has two distinct regions, the outer __________ ________ and inner __________
The ________ ________ are very important to human physiology. They produce steroid hormones that regulate glucose and electrolyte levels.
The adrenal medullae are basically modified sympathetic __________ of the autonomic nervous system that never formed post sympathetic neurons. Rather than secreting chemicals as neurotransmitters, they are released as hormones
The hormone-producing cells in the adrenal medulla, called ___________ cells, are innervated by sympathetic preganglionic neurons of the ANS. Because the ANS exerts direct control over the chromaffin cells, hormone release can occur very _________.
adrenal medulla, 80%, 20%
The two major hormones synthesized by the ________ _________ are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE), also called adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. The chromaffin cells secrete an unequal amount of these hormones—about ____ epinephrine and ____ norepinephrine.
The zona __________ secretes the mineralocorticoids, which function to regulate mineral homeostasis. __________ is the main mineralocorticoid.
The zona _________ secretes the glucocorticoids. The primary glucocorticoid is ________, and it functions to regulate glucose availability and metabolism.
The zona _________ secretes small amounts of the gonadocorticoids. These are weak __________, which are simply masculinizing steroid hormones.
___________ is the major mineralocorticoid. It regulates homeostasis of two mineral ions, namely sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+), and helps adjust blood pressure and blood volume. It also promotes excretion of H+ in the urine; this removal of acids from the body can help prevent acidosis
_____ stimulates the release of ______, which in turn
stimulates the release of the "corlical" hormones.
The adrenal medulla secretions are very similar to
the effects of the ___________ nervous system
In the step ___ of the RAAS system the low pressure stimulates a specific group of celis (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidneys
to secrete the enzyme ______.
two, angiotensin I
In the step ___ of the RAAS system Renin circulates in the blood and converts angiotensinogen (a plasma protein produced by the liver) into ____________ ___
three, angiotensin converting enzyme
In the step ___ of the RAAS system angiotension I continues to circulate in the blood and comes into contact with an
enzyme in the lungs called __________ ________ ________ (ACE)
In the step ___ of the RAAS system Angiotensin II has two main actions to increase blood pressure:
a) stimulate the contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles'
b) stimulate the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
In the step ___ of the RAAS system __________ increases the reabsorption of Na+ and water, so less is lost in the urine,
and stimulates the kidneys to excrete K+ and H'. The increased water reabsorption results in a blood volume and blood pressure
The main stimuli that initiate the _______ are: low blood sodium, low blood volume, or dehydration
The glucocorticoids, which regulate metabolism and resistance to stress, include cortisol (hydrocortisone), corticosterone, and _________. Of these three hormones secreted by the zona __________, cortisol is the most abundant, accounting for about 95% of glucocorticoid activity
The ______________ regulate glucose metabolism, suppress the immune system, and also facilitate resistance to stress, not necessarily psychological stress.
___________ is a person's anti-hypoglycemic hormone. This means it will does whatever it can to keep a person's glucose level up. If there isn't enough available glucose, it will get it from somewhere else, protein and lipids which ic called ________________
1) Protein breakdown, mainly in muscle fibers, to free up amino acids for ATP production or synthesis of other proteins
2) Stimulates liver cells to convert amino acids and lactic acid to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
3) Stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides to release fatty acids into the blood
4) Inhibit the activity of white blood cells that participate in inflammation (anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effects)
5) Stress resistance
are the effects of ______________
corticotropin-releasing hormone, ACTH
Low blood levels of glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol, stimulate neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus to secrete ___________ _________ _________ (CRH). CRH (together with a low level of cortisol) promotes the release of _______ from the anterior pituitary. ACTH flows in the blood to the adrenal cortex, where it stimulates glucocorticoid secretion
Small amounts of ____________ are secreted from the zona __________ of the adrenal cortex in both males and females. The androgens are weak masculinizing steroid hormones
________ puberty, the levels of these hormones are almost insignificant due to the amount of testosterone and estrogen from the gonads
The ___________ contribute to the development of
secondary sex characteristics in both sexes, and they
promote the female libido (sex drive).
Name the Disease:__________
Cause: Corcisol or ACTH secreting tumor
Hormone: Increased cortisol
Effects: High blood glucose, Immune suppression, Poor wound healing, Hypertension, Lipolysis causing redistribution of body fat (moon face, buffalo
hump, pendulous abdomen)
Name the Disease:__________
Cause: Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex
Hormone: Decreased cortisol, Decreased aldosterone
Effects: Low blood glucose, Low blood Na+, High blood K+, Low blood pressure
Usually benign tumors of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, called ______________ cause hypersecretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The result is a prolonged version of the fight-or-flight response: rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, high levels of glucose in blood and urine, an elevated basal metabolic rate (BMR), flushed face, nervousness, sweating, and decreased gastrointestinal motility
posterior, endocrine, exocrine
The pancreas is located __________ to the stomach and near the curve of the duodenun. It consists of a head, a body, and a tail. The pancreas is both an ________ and an _________ organ.
99% of the pancreas is made up of clusters of
cells called _______. The cells contained in the
______ produce digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine ((((blanks are the same word))))
Scattered among the exocrine acini are 1-2 million tiny clusters of endocrine tissue called pancreatic islets or islets of ______________
_______ or A cells constitute about 17% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete ________ which increases blood glucose levels, and acts on hepatocytes to convert glycogen to glucose
Beta, insulin, diffusion
_______ or B cells constitute about 70% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete _______ they also decreases blood glucose levels, and speeds conversion of glucose to glycogen and accelerates facilitated _________ of glucose into cells
_______ or D cells constitute about 7% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete __________ (identical to the growth hormone-inhibiting hormone secreted by the hypothalamus) which acts to inhibit insulin and glucagon
F, pancreatic polypeptide
___ cells constitute the remainder of pancreatic islet cells and secrete __________ _________ which inhibts somatostatin
glucagon, hepatocytes, lactic acid, glucose
Low blood glucose level (hypoglycemia) stimulates secretion of __________ from alpha cells of the pancreatic islets.
Glucagon acts on __________ to accelerate the conversion of glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) and to promote formation of glucose from ________ ______ and certain amino acids (gluconeogenesis).
As a result, hepatocytes release ________ into the blood more rapidly, and blood glucose level rises.
insulin, diffusion, glycogen, uptake, slow
High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) stimulates secretion of _______ by beta cells of the pancreatic islets.
Insulin acts on various cells in the body to accelerate facilitated ________ of glucose into cells; to speed conversion of glucose into ________ (glycogenesis); to increase ______ of amino acids by cells and to increase protein synthesis; to speed synthesis of fatty acids (lipogenesis); to _____ the conversion of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis); and to slow the formation of glucose from lactic acid and amino acids (gluconeogenesis).
Indirectly, human growth hormone (hGH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulate secretion of _______ because they act to elevate blood glucose.
The body will utiiize many resources to maintain a normal blood glucose level, this is called _____________
The most common endocrine disorder is ___________ __________, caused by an inability to produce or use insulin.
Type I, juvenile-onset, insulin dependent, destroys, genetic
______ ___, _________-_________, and __________ __________ all describe a form of diabetes mellitus that typically occurs in a younger population, the person's immune system ________ the pancreatic beta cells, it is postulated that an individual acquires an infectious disease, most likely a virus that changes the cell signature on the beta cells, and results in the autoimmune destruction of the cells. There is a known ________ component to the disorder, but the current theory also involves an environmental influence. With the loss of beta cells, the patient doesn't have insulin to help facilitate diffusion of glucose into the body's cells
Type II, adult-onset, non insulin dependent, obesity
________ ___, ________-_______and ____-_______ __________ all describe individuals that still produce some insulin, but they either don't produce enough, effectively utilize what they do produce, or maybe both. Studies show that there is a greater genetic influence with type II than tlpe I, but there are other environmental factors that come into play. For example, one of the leading causes of type II diabetes is ________.
decreased insulin sensitivity
In individuals who continually overeat, the pancreas must secrete insulin to assist with the transport of glucose out of the blood and into the cells. If this process is happening too much, the body may respond by down-regulating insulin receptors, so even though there is insulin present, the body isn't responding in a normal fashion; more glucose stays in the blood stream. This is what is referred to as __________ __________ __________.
In type II diabetes eventually, the pancreas will decrease the overall insulin output. Most medical scientists would re-classify type 2 diabetes as a part of _________ _________, a cluster of hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension and insuiin resistance.
With ________ ______, fhe patient's glucose is critically high. This commonly occurs with hypoinsulinism; the patient doesn't have or take enough insulin or medication to match their caloric (food) intake.
________ ________refers to someone that takes too much insulin; it moves too much glucose into the cells, and doesn't leave enough for later
With a complete lack of insulin, type I diabetics can experience a condition called ___________. This is where a patient doesn't have any available glucose due to a complete lack of insulin. They rely on fatty acid metabolism for their ATP production. The bi-products of fatty acid metabolism are organic acids called ketoacids. The overproduction of these acids causes the person's pH to ______ and it becomes very life threatening.
The ovaries also produce ______, a protein hormone that inhibits secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
During pregnancy, the ovaries and placenta produce a peptide hormone called ______, which increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy and helps dilate the uterine cervix during labor and delivery
Estrogens and progesterone
Regulate the female reproductive cycle, maintain pregnancy, brest development and maturation, widening of the hips, adipose tissue deposition in the breasts and around the hips are the functions of what hormones?
Sperm production (spermatogenesis) hair growth patterns, increased skeletal and muscular growth, voice changes are the functions of what hormone?
The pineal gland is attached to the top of the _______ vertricle of the brain; it is part of the ___________.
Part of the epithalamus, it is positioned between the two superior colliculi, has a mass of 0.1-0.2 g, and is covered by a capsule formed by the pia mater. The gland consists of masses of neuroglia and secretory cells called _____________
The pineal gland secretes ________, an ________ hormone derived from serotonin. Melatonin appears to contribute to the setting of the body's biological clock, which is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus.
The ________ gland is located in the mediastinum (behind the sternum and between the lungs) and is important to our immune system
___________ and other related hormones from the thymus gland encourage the maturation of T-lymphocytes.
A ___________ is anything that causes a stress response. Maybe an easier way to understand it is anything that disrupts normal homeostasis. Examples include: chemicals, psychological stress, heat, cold, confinement, injury, hemorrhage.
Stress can be helpful in some situations; it heightens responsiveness and helps increase concentration. This type of stress is called _________
general adaptation syndrome
in the 1930's, Dr. Hans Selye, demonstrated that a variety of stressors would invoke a very similar response, regardless of the stressor type. These common effects controlled mainly
by the hypothalamus, were termed the stress response or the _________ ___________ ___________ (GAS).
general adaptation syndrome
fight or flight, resistance, and exhaustion are the three stages of _________ ___________ __________
hypothalamus, adrenal medulla, sympathetic
The flight-or-flight stage of the stress response is initiated by the ___________ and stimulates the __________ _________. The body is trying to quickly activate mechanisms to allow an immediate physical response' This is essentially a ___________ nervous system response
In the fight or flight response reduction of blood flow to the kidneys promotes release of _____, which sets into motion the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway. Aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain Na+, which leads to water retention and ________ blood pressure.
corticotrophin releasing, growth, releasing, and thyrotropin releasing
The resistance reaction is also initiated by the hypothalamus, but in this case by secreting the releasing-hormones: ___________-__________ hormone, ___________ hormone -___________ , and __________hormone __________-_________ hormone
ACTH, hGH, TSH
In the resistance action activation of the adrenal cortex (_____), liver (_____), and thyroid (______) causes: increased blood pressure, glycogen catabolism, protein catabolism,
lipolysis, and Na+ and water retention and decreased inflammation, wound healing, and immune response.
The resources of the body may eventually become so depleted that they cannot sustain the resistance stage, and ___________ ensues.
Prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol and other hormones involved in the ___________ __________ causes wasting of muscle, suppression of the immune system, ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, and failure of pancreatic beta cells.
Somatotrophs, GHRH, GHIH
hGH is secreted by ____________, its releasing hormone is _____, and is inhibited by _______
Thyrotrophs, TRH, GHIH
TSH is secreted by ____________, its releasing hormone is _____, and is inhibited by _______
Lactotrophs, PRH, PIH
PRL is secreted by ____________, its releasing hormone is _____, and is inhibited by _______
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