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Level 12: Dining (Grammar)
Terms in this set (24)
MAKE A SENTENCE: 些
some/measure word for indefinite amount (xiē)
些 is always preceded by the number 一 or a pronoun (never a larger number!)
TRANSLATE: That'll be all. These (ones) are more than enough.
MAKE A SENTENCE: Reduplicated Adjectives
Some Chinese adjectives can be reduplicated. The accent falls on the second occurrence of the reduplicated adjective.
The reduplication often suggests an approving attitude on the speaker's part. It is "cute."
"sub + adjective + adjective + 的"
NOTE: Reduplication usually does not appear in negative form.
Examples: "甜甜的", "高高的", "酸酸的", etc.
TRANSLATE: We've got sweet and sour fish today, it's a little sweet and a little sour. It's delicious! [*reduplicated adjectives]
PUZZLE: List at least four
PUZZLE: List at least four
RULE (in English): Explain how to tell someone to do something "more", "less", or "not at all." Give specific examples in context.
多, 少, and 别 are here used like "adverbs" (as opposed to adjectives). They are placed before the verb to express the idea of doing something "more," "less," or "not at all."
Use this structure for adding or subtracting flavoring:
"sub + 多/少/别 + 放 + ingredient"
多＋放＋ingredient＝add more [ingredient]
少＋放＋ingredient＝add less [ingredient]
别＋放＋ingredient＝don't add [ingredient]
NOTE: ingredients are nouns, NOT adjectives/flavors (i.e. "add salt"=放盐)
TRANSLATE: Please give me a cola, put lots of ice.
TRANSLATE: (Let's) get two bowls of hot and sour soup, please don't put MSG, don't put too much salt.
MAKE A SENTENCE: 一...也/都...不/没有
not even all, not even one
一 + MW + object + 都 + 不/没 + verb" = Not AT ALL [verb phrase]
1. 这个饭馆好像一个位子都没有 = In this restaurant it seems there's even one seat
2. 我今天没钱，一块钱都没有 = I didn't ring money today, not even one dollar do I have
3. 如果你想睡好觉，就不能喝咖啡，一杯咖啡都不能喝= If you want to sleep well, you can't drink coffee, not even one cup
4. 他看了很多件衬衫，一件也不喜欢，一件都没买 = He saw a lot of shirts, didn't like even one, didn't buy even one
5. 一个都不能少 = Not even one less [Movie Title]
TRANSLATE: It seems like there's not one seat left.
RULE (in English): Explain what a "result complement" is. Describe its specific structure and when it should be used. Give examples of result complements.
A "result complement" is a complement that's used to describe or clarify the result of a verb's action.
> SUB + VERB + RESULT COMPLEMENT (+ OBJECT)
Remember: a complement is a word or phrase following a verb (or sometimes an adjective) that provides additional meaning to the verb phrase. There are many different types of complements. Complements can describe duration, quantity, state, degree, result, direction, or possibility.
The use of result complements is an essential feature of the Chinese language. Generally speaking, result complements are necessary as long as an action produces a certain result.
In English, we have separate verbs to describe actions depending on their outcome. You can look, but not see, or listen, but not hear. In Chinese, verbs tend to be of the 'look' and 'listen' variety - the result isn't included like it is in 'see' and 'hear'. So if you want to indicate the result, you have to use a result complement.
There are endless examples of these 'attempt' or 'procedure' verbs in Chinese which don't include an outcome. The majority of Chinese verbs are like this, in fact. For example:
> 看 means 'to look' but doesn't include the result 'to see'.
> 写 is similar to the English verb 'to write', in that it doesn't specify what the result of writing was (e.g. whether it was correct or not).
All of these verbs need a result complement to describe a complete action with its result.
Whether a verb can or should be combined with a result complement is not random, but rather follows certain set patterns. It's best to memorize each "verb + result complement" as a set phrase.
NOTE 1: 了 very often appears with result complements, as 了 marks completed actions, and as you'd expect a result complement is usually about a completed action. 了 comes after the result complement, as the verb+result compound can't be separated.
NOTE 2: The negative form of a result complement is usually formed with "没有" [because it's negating a completed result]. Do NOT use "不."
1. 小白菜卖完了。= The baby bok choy is sold out [完=result complement].
2. 你找错钱了。= You gave me the change incorrectly [错＝result complement].
3. 功课做好了，我要睡觉了。= My homework is done [好=result complement], I want to go to bed.
For more details about result complements; see this link:
TRANSLATE: I saw it.
The result complements "到" or "见" are grammatically necessary in this sentence.
What 到 (dào) does is indicate that the outcome of the verb is achieved - what its result is. Without a result complement, the sentence would describe only the action itself.
To illustrate, 看 (kàn) "to look" is the action of turning your head in a particular direction and focusing your eyes, whereas 看到 (kàn dào)," to see," is the result of your brain taking in the visual input.
It may sound a little hokey, but it really is possible to "look but not see," and Chinese makes a clear distinction between the action and the result.
NOTE: "到" and "见" are both common result complements for sensing verbs [such as 看 and 听]. They can be used interchangeably in this area. However, 见 is ONLY used after sensing verbs, while 到 can ALSO be attached to a large number of other verbs [such as 找，做，买，学，想, etc.]
For more info about 到 and 见 as result complements, see this link: https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Result_complements_%22-dao%22_and_%22-jian%22
TRANSLATE: Did you hear it?
>> For Grammar Notes, see the card "TRANSLATE: I saw it."
TRANSLATE: I didn't see him.
The negative form of a result complement is usually formed with "没有" [because it's negating a completed result]. Do NOT use "不."
TRANSLATE: I'm sorry, our baby bok choy was just sold out.
TRANSLATE: No problem, the dish can be made very quickly.
TRANSLATE: Sorry, I didn't see [it] clearly.
DETECTIVE (find and fix the mistakes): 菜很快就能做了好。
DETECTIVE (find and fix the mistakes): 我不看清楚了。
PUZZLE (in English): What are the two common result complements that appear after sensing verbs? Give examples.
Result Complements: 见，到
PUZZLE (in English): list the three types of complements we've learned so far, and give examples of each.
Descriptive Complements: V+得+adj
Direction Complements: V+来/去
Result Complements: V+到/见/完/对/错/好/清楚
PUZZLE: list at least six different "verb +result complements" patterns using "到"
**BONUS (RULE): in English, Explain the differences between 刚 vs. 刚才. Give examples of each.
刚 = (gāng) just [adv]
> denotes that the action or change in situation took place in the recent past.
> the "recent past" is relative and determined by the speaker. For this reason, 刚 can indicate that something "just" happened 1 second ago, 5 minutes ago, 2 hours ago, 3 weeks ago, or even a year ago. The absolute time is flexible, but from the speaker's perspective, it feels recent.
> cannot be followed by the negation words 不 and 没.
> 了 is not usually required in sentences with 刚 if the verb indicates a clear result
刚才= just now [noun/time word]
> similar in meaning to 刚 but has a different part of speech; it refers to the time shortly before the act of speaking
> cannot be followed by an expression that indicates the duration of time
> often used in the structure "刚才...了"
See the Chinese Grammar Wiki for more details: https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Comparing_%22gang%22_and_%22gangcai%22
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