AP Psych Unit 5 (I think I forget the unit)
Terms in this set (51)
A nerve cell; the basic building blocks for the nervous system.
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses towards the cell body.
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to other muscles or glands.
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally chasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or clef.
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
Central Nervous System
(CNS) The brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS) The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
Neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and the sense organs.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscle glands.
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the Autonomic Nervous System that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the Autonomic Nervous System that calms the body, conserving its energy.
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee/jerk response.
Interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; A set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
The endocrine's system most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth ans controls other endocrine glands.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
PET (Positioning Emission Tomography)
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performed a given task.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
FMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
A technique for revealing blood flow, and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI show brain function.
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. Its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border at the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
The base of the brainstem; controls heart beat and breathing.
A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking an muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body positions.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual fields.
The position of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Impairment of language, usually caused by the left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to the Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
The brain's capability for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connection fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
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