Biology (UC Davis BIS2C) Lab Practical (Set #5)

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 57
Terms in this set (57)
Surface Area to Volume RatioIf this ratio is larger, a gut cavity's ability to absorb nutrients is much higher since it gives it more area to absorb nutrients with.Asexual ReproductionA type of reproduction involving the copying of one genotype into new bodies.Sexual ReproductionA type of reproduction involving the formation of haploid gametes through meiosis, and then the fusion of the gametes to form zygotes.MonoeciousAnimals in which male and female sex organs occur in the same body. Also known as hermaphrodite.DioeciousAnimals in which male individuals make male gametes and female individuals make female gametes.Radial CleavageA type of embryonic development in deuterostomes in which the planes of cell division that transform the zygote into a ball of cells are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the embryo, thereby aligning tiers of cells one above the other.Spiral CleavageA type of embryonic development in protostomes, in which the planes of cell division that transform the zygote into a ball of cells occur obliquely to the polar axis, resulting in cells of each tier sitting in the grooves between cells of adjacent tiers.Mosaic CleavageA type of cleavage in which the distribution of mRNAs controls the fate of each cell. If a cell is lost early in development, no other cell can replace the structures that would have been made by the lost cell.Regulative CleavageA type of cleavage in which the chemical gradients produced by the cells determines the fate of the cells. If a cell is lost, another cell can respond to the signal to create an appropriate structure.BlastulaA stage formed from cleavage that typically has a single cell layer around a central fluid-filled cavity. Eventually forms the gastrula.GastrulaA two-layer stage following the blastula through cells and folding of layers and consists of the ectoderm and endoderm.EctodermThe outer skin layer in a gastrula.EndodermThe inner skin layer in a gastrula.MesodermIn triploblastic animals, the middle skin layer that usually forms from the endoderm.DiploblasticOrganisms that develop only two embryonic tissues and only have two adult tissue layers.TriploblasticOrganisms that develop the full three embryonic tissues, and have three adult tissue layers: endo, meso, and ectoderm.DeuterostomeOrganisms that tend to have radial regulative cleavage and develop the anus from the blastopore.ProtostomeOrganisms that tend to have spiral mosaic cleavage and develop the mouth from the blastopore.EcdysozoanA group of the protostomes that contains animals that grow by molting the cuticle.LophotrochozoanA group of the protostomes that have a trochophore larval stage.ChoanocytesSpecial flagellated cells in sponge chambers that move the water and capture food.SpiculesSmall, needlelike structures in sponges made of calcium carbonate, silica or a tough fibrous protein called spongin.CnidocytesSpecial stinging structures on cnidarians that look like small harpoons.PolypsA stage in the life cycle of a Cnidarian that can copy itself by asexual reproduction and makes the medusa or jelly stage asexually as well. This is done through budding or fission, and even form colonies.MedusaeSecond body plan of cnidarians. usually free-floating and umbrella shaped. Mouths point downward and are surrounded by hanging tentacles.RadulaA unique mouth part present in the Mollusca family that members use to scrape algae from the rock or rasp pieces of tissue from algal fronds.FootOne of the three main parts of a mollusc; a muscular structure usually used for movement.MantleA protective layer of epidermis in mollusks or brachiopods that secretes a substance forming the shell.ShellA prominent part of molluscs that offer them protection and a defense against predators.ClitellumBand of thickened, specialized segments in annelids that secretes a mucus ring into which eggs and sperm are released.ExoskeletonA hardened cuticle arthropods are characterized by that form a protective covering over the body, from both predators and supporting their body weight on land.EndoskeletonA skeleton on the inside of a creature's body, typically composed of bone or cartilage.TagmataDiscrete body regions that arthropod's segments fuse into. This is often a result of specialization in the body parts.AppendagesStructures such as legs and antennae that extend from the body.EcdysisPeriodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles.HolometabolousComplete metamorphosis (caterpillar to a butterfly).HemimetabolousSimple metamorphosis -Incomplete metamorphosis where the immature resemble the adults but some features are missing or different (wings, reproductive organs, color, shape, etc.).Water Vascular SystemA network of hydraulic canals unique to echinoderms that branches into extensions called tube feet, which function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.Oral SurfaceThe surface of an echinoderm where the mouth is located.Aboral SurfaceThe surface of an echinoderm where the mouth is not located.Dorsal SurfaceAlong (or toward) the vertebral surface of the body.Ventral SurfaceBottom surface of the tongue closest to floor of mouth.Pharyngeal Gill SlitAn opening, located just posterior to the mouth, that connects the digestive tube to the outside environment; present ( as some stage of life in all chordates.NotochordLong supporting rod that runs through a chordate's body just below the nerve cord.Nerve CordTubelike structure above the notochord that in most chordates develops into the brain and spinal cord.Post-Anal TailA tail posterior to the anus; found in chordate embryos and most adult chordates.BlastoporeIn a gastrula, the opening of the archenteron that typically develops into the anus in deuterostomes and the mouth in protostomes.