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103 terms

Introduction to the Human Body - Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy
the scientific study of the structures or morphology of organisms and their parts
Physiology
the scientific study of the functions or processes of living things
Cells
basic living units of all organisms
Tissues
cells with similar structure and function that are grouped together as tissues
Organs
two or more tissue types that together form a complex structure and work together to perform one or more functions
Body Systems
consists of several organs that work together to accomplish a set of functions
Total Organism
most complex level which is made up of several systems that work together to sustain life
Metabolism
includes all chemical reactions that occur in the body
Responsiveness
concerned with detecting changes in the internal or external environment and reacting to that change, the act of sensing a stimulus and responding to it
Differentation
developmental process by which unspecialized cells change into specialized cells with distinctive structural and functional characteristics - through differentiation cells turn into tissues and organs
Excretion
a process that removes waste products of digestion and metabolism from the body ~ gets rid of by-products that the body does not use
Homeostasis
refers to the constant internal environment that must be maintained for the cells of the body
Stressor
a stimulus that disrupts the homeostatic balance in the body
Negative Feedback System
this mechanism keeps variation within the body at a normal range working like a thermostat connected to a furnace
Positive Feedback System
this mechanism stimulates or amplifies change
Palpation
to examine or explore by touching
Axilla
armpit
Popliteal
behind the knee
Brachii
arm
Dorsal
posterior
Volar
of or pertaining to the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot
Sural
calf
Artery
carries blood away from the heart, you can find the pulse points here
Veins
carry blood to the heart and are easily found on the dorsal side of the hand
Lymph Node
any of the gland like masses of tissue in the lymphatic vessels containing cells that become lymphocytes
Bursae
small fluid filled sacs that reduce friction between two structures, found at the joints
Adipose Tissue
fatty connective tissue
Articulation or Joint
point of contact between two bones
Tendons
attach muscle to bone
Ligaments
attach bone to bone
Lordotic
bends anteriorly
Kyphotic
bends posteriorly (hunchback)
Prime Mover
muscle that performs an action
Synergist
muscle that assists the prime mover
Antagonist
muscle that works against the prime mover
Active Movement
movement that is performed solely by your partner or client
Passive Movement
your client or partner relaxes while you move the body
Resisted Movement
requires both of you to act together to produce movement ~ your client attempts to perform and action against your gentle resistance
Atlas
C1
Axis
C2
Action (Muscles)
the action the muscle performs
Origin (Muscles)
the less moveable bone where the muscle originates
Insertion (Muscles)
the more movable bone where the muscle inserts
Nerve Innervation (Muscle)
details the nerve that feeds the muscle or body part
Superior (Anatomical Term)
closer to the head
Inferior (Anatomical Term)
closer to the feet
Anterior (Anatomical Term)
front
Posterior (Anatomical Term)
back
Medial (Anatomical Term)
pertaining to closer to the midline
Lateral (Anatomical Term)
pertaining to away from the midline
Distal (Anatomical Term)
further from the trunk of the body
Proximal (Anatomical Term)
closer to the trunk of the body
Superficial (Anatomical Term)
close to the surface
Deep (Anatomical Term)
structure deeper in the body
Visceral (Anatomical Term)
organ (smooth)
Prone (Anatomical Term)
face down
Supine (Anatomical Term)
face up
Extension (Anatomical Term)
movement that opens or straightens a joint
Flexion (Anatomical Term)
movement that bends the joint closer together
Adduction (Anatomical Term)
adding to the midline of the body
Abduction (Anatomical Term)
taking away from the body midline
Medial Rotation (Anatomical Term)
limbs turn toward midline
Lateral Rotation (Anatomical Term)
limbs turn away from the midline
Rotation (Anatomical Term)
left and right movement along a transverse plane
Circumduction (Anatomical Term)
cone shaped movement (backstroke)
Lateral Flexion (Anatomical Term)
head or vertebral column bend to one side
Supination (Anatomical Term)
carry a bowl of soup
Pronation (Anatomical Term)
spill the soup
Opposition (Anatomical Term)
cross pinky to thumb (all fingers)
Inversion (Anatomical Terms)
elevates medial side of the foot
Eversion (Anatomical Term)
elevates lateral side of the foot
Plantar Flexion (Anatomical Term)
stand on toes
Dorsi Flexion (Anatomical Term)
stand on heels
Protraction (Anatomical Term)
to protrude (bulldog)
Retraction (Anatomical Term)
to retreat (overbite)
Elevation (Anatomical Term)
movement superiorly
Depression (Anatomical Term)
movement inferiorly
Deviation (Anatomical Term)
wander from usual course (chewing)
Fascia
deep connective tissue - continuous sheet of fibrous membrane located beneath the skin and around muscles and organs, extending through out the body from head to toe
Superficial Fascia
located immediately deep to the skin and covers the entire body
Deep Fascia
more complex - it surrounds the muscle bellies, holds them together and separates them into functional groups, and it also fills spaces between the muscles
Deep Fascia
more complex - it surrounds the muscle bellies, holds them together and separates them into functional groups, and it also fills spaces between the muscles
Aponeurosis
broad flat sheet of connective tissue that connects one muscle to another or a muscle to a bone
Thoracolumbar Aponeurosis
broad flat tendon stretching across the thorax and lumbar region ~ it is thick, diamond shaped and is an anchor for several muscles including the Latissimus Dorsi and the Erector Spinae group
Linea Alba
an abdominal wall muscle that is in the anterior midline that forms the white line ~ a sheet of connective tissue that extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphisis and serves as an attachment site for the abdominal muscles
Retinaculum
structure that holds an organ or tissue in place ~ it is a transverse thickening of the deep fascia which straps tendons down to a particular position
Iliotibial Tract (IT Band)
superficial sheet of fascia with vertical fibers that run along the lateral thigh serving as a strong stabilizer for the hip and knee
Interosseous Membrane
thin strong fibrous sheet that binds the forearm bones together and forms as an attachment site for muscles
Inguinal Ligament
ligament that serves as an attachment site for the lower portion of the external oblique muscles and is located in the pelvic region ~ it connects the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle
Ligament Nuchae
finlike sheet of connective tissue that runs along the Sagittal plane from the external occipital protuberance (EOP) to the spinous processes of C7 in the neck ~ it is an attachment site for superficial muscles of the posterior neck such as the Trapezius and the Splenius
Pes Anserinus Tendon
the Gracilis, Sartorius, and Semitendinosus all merge together to form this tendon
Menisci of the Knee
fibrocartilage discs attached to the tibial condyles and are important for weight distribution and friction reduction
Appendicular Skeleton
126 Bones ~ consists of the free appendages and their gridles (pelvis bones)
Axial Skeleton
80 Bones ~ consists of the skull, thorax, ribs, spine, sacrum, and tailbone
Sagittal Plane (Planes of the Body)
divides the body into left and right halves
Frontal Plane (Planes of the Body)
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Transverse Plane (Planes of the Body)
divides the body into upper and lower parts
Ball & Socket (Joints)
circumduction (glenohumeral joint)
Hinge (Joint)
allows only flexion and extension (elbow)
Gliding (Joint)
between two flat surfaces (carpal and tarsal bones)
Ellipsoid (Joint)
permits flexion, extension, abduction and adduction (radio carpal joint)
Saddle (Joint)
bones of the wrist between the carpals and metacarpals
Pivot (Joints)
allows rotation between the 1st & 2nd cervical vertebrae at the atlantoaxial joint